Modern Unconscious Exam 2

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physical to the psychological
Exaptation or reuse of pre-existing concepts and structures Pre-existing → innate (evolved) or result of early learning Basic substrate likely to concern reliable aspects of the physical world and also basic evolved motives such as survival and reproduction Abstract social and psychological concepts influence how we behave
extended idea of physical influences on psychological processes Dislike of broken patterns predicts greater moral condemnation and punishment of harm and purity violations In children and adults, dislike of broken patterns - things out of order - is correlated with measures of racism and prejudice
Hills, Gladstone
- participants play a game in which they search for treasure, food, gold, etc. - arguing that our modern skills of foraging through our minds (finding old memories) is analogous of our previous ability to forage IRL - after playing physical searching game, participants faster at searching for memories
Tylenol cures breakups
Reduced amount of physical pain that people experienced
Physical and moral cleansing
When you wash your hands or use purell, it cleans you physically but also causes moral cleansing → washes away guilt
Lee & Schwarz
washing your hands also washes away temporary states - washing your hands temporarily separates states - athletes not wanting to clean their uniforms or shave when they've been on a winning streak - don't want to change/separate the state of good luck
Chapman et al 2009
- disgust - same EMG facial muscles respond to physical disgusting stimuli and moral disgusting behavior
Lady macbeth effect
Washing away your sins" Study 1 Participants asked to imagine themselves committing various moral transgressions or not Given choice of a gift - hand wipes or candy bar. Those who had imagined moral transgressions were more likely to choose hand wipes Study 2 Hand copied a short story with moral transgression (sabotage coworker) or not; rated several products → higher ratings for cleansing products (dove soap and windex rated higher than batteries or snicker bars) Study 3 - strongest demonstration bc it causes you to look in Remember something you've done that's morally wrong Then induced to wash hands or not Then asked if they would help a desperate grad student by being in her study next 74% in not-cleanses condition said YES; only 41% in cleansed condition agreed to help
Schnall et al 2008
sentences are worse when jury is in a dirty jury room
Solomon Asch: warm & cold
- warm and cold are central traits - changes how other characteristics relate to each other (e.g. "sensitive & wam" is very different than "sensitive & cold" - would give participants characteristics of a person and only switch "warm" & "cold" and this majorly impacted liking of that person - "warm" vs. "cold" is most important thing in impression formation
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Bargh replicated Asch's study in 2008
temp priming and personality and impressions Read about person with 6 traits (did not say warm or cold at all) Then on way up elevator, one group help cold coffee and one group held hot coffee (brief experience) Get same result as Asch got Physical experience activated psychological experience of warm and cold
Ijzerman et al 2012
- children at day care hold hot or cold thermos - those primed with warmth shared more stickers with other children - only occurred in securely attached children
The ninth level of hell → lowest level, where satan is Satan frozen in ice Punishment that matches the action Treachery; Betrayed trust of close others = action People are freezing cold = Physical punishment
Zhong & Leonardelli
after rejection experience, greater preference for warm foods
Ijzerman & Semin (2008)
- after rejection experience, participants estimate room temperature as colder - after inclusion experience, participants estimate room temperature as warmer
Daily diary study - reports of feeling warm or cold during the day are related to how many positive prosocial versus negative antisocial behaviors the person performed
1620, made a distinction between mind and body
Jean Mandler
early spatial and physical concepts are the scaffold on which language acquisition is based Psychological concepts based on physical analogies infants can analyze and compare externally available information - formation of spatial concepts, no access to internal states, later internal psychological states are understood using available physical concepts in analogical fashion Kids can't compare or tie together experiences until 3 or 4 years old The earliest direct concepts: spatial and other directly-experienced physical concepts are the earliest concepts formed by the infant
Lewin, 1944
Spatial concepts: distance "psychological distance", emotional, relationships, temporal (how far something is in time) Distance is very important for survival (accessibility to resources, predator proximity)
Trope and Liberman 2014
Physiological distance: different aspects/manifestations of distance swap - if something happens far away from you it is also emotionally far from you We don't weigh something in the future as much as we do things right now
Schubert 2005
Your Highness": looking up to someone vs. looking down, high vs low status Powerful: boss, judge, chancellor Powerless: secretary, prisoner, child ^People are faster to respond to powerful words than powerless words
Nelson and Simmons 2007:
people are more likely to travel south to buy a sale item than to travel north (easier to go down than up) Spatial considerations impacting our decisions
Ackerman, Nocera, Bargh 2010
Heavy=serious, hard=rigid, difficult, rough=effortful, smooth=fluent,easy Hard vs. soft cushioned chair experiment: more likely to compromise if in a soft chair, less likely if in hard chair "Soft on crime" fmri study: feeling something hard vs soft activates somatosensory cortex Judging crimes and how punishment should be given More lenient after feeling something soft than hard Rough vs smooth: rough difficult smooth more fluid Correlations between primary somatosensory cortex activation and the extremity of non-smooth judgments
Meier, Robinson, and colleagues
Physical and social sweetness: eating sweet foods related to prosocial behaviors (helpfulness, smiling, pleasantness) Tasting something sweet increased self reports of helpfulness and agreeableness People do more helpful and prosocial things when eating sweet foods
Stepper and Strack 1993
Postural feedback: slouching or upright posture during test, slouchers feel less proud upon learning they'd succeeded on a test Sitting up straight makes one morally upright, harder working, more diligent From body to emotion
Chen and Bargh 1999
Evaluation and muscular readiness: positive evaluation produces approach muscular tendency, negative evaluation produces avoidance/withdrawal muscular tendency
Strack 1988
holding pen in teeth or lips, smile induced with teeth, frown with lips Cartoons funnier holding pen in teeth
Lakoff and Johsnon 1980
Metaphorical thought: we think and communicate easily in terms of analogies Abstract terms are metaphorically related to basic physical terms
Barsalous 1996:
- embodied cognition (body state is also encoded into memory) - participants in unfurnished room. told to come up with types of flying birds/flying machines or types of flowers - came up with more flying things when looking up - came up with more flower types when looking down
Akpinar and Berger 2015
Phrases and concepts that contain physical experiences are much more likely to catch on in popular usage than other forms of description Memes spread like viruses; more easily convey their meanings to others
general motives(survival reproduction)
very early life experience
local knowledge and rules
even more fine-tuned guides, given local circumstances Take any child anywhere and they will absorb that language and culture as if it was their own Children are VERY adaptive in early life Evolutionary influences
Infantile amnesia
not remembering things from your childhood that definitely happen Lost shared experiences with their parents as growing up Losing memories
(Jeff Simpson and colleagues
Attachment at age 1 Social abilities in grade school Number of friends in high school How long their relationships last in their 20s How attached is a child to their parents? Find out how: how does a child act when the parent leaves the room? Does the child think the parent will come back? The more securely attached kids had more friends in high school Less securely attached had less social abilities, fewer friends in high school, and had shorter relationships that did not lose YOU DON'T HAVE MEMORY OF ATTACHMENT PROBLEMS AS A CHILD (EXPLICIT) YOU DO HAVE MEMORY OF HOW CERTAIN THINGS MAKE YOU FEEL (IMPLICIT) Act upon these feelings when grown up even though not explicitly aware of the problem
marshmallows and pretzel sticks test
Measure the time until the kids take the food The longer they could wait when they were 4, the better grades they had in high school, the lower the chances of teenage pregnancy and drug abuse, the lower the rates of arrest, the greater their income at age 30, the lower the divorce rate MOST IMPORTANT- kids have no access to this in their memory, they act upon what they know implicitly
Block and Block
fearful four-year-old children more likely to report conservative attitudes at age 23
Dunham at el 2008
How do stereotypes and intergroup biases develop? New model: there exist tendencies at birth to favor one's ingroup and distrust outgroups - also children soak up cultural views about social groups at very early ages such as three months. Soaking up cultural influences
Gilbert 1993
the assent of man - believe what we hear and only make corrections if we really think about it consciously - only correct if we have time, ability, motivation, etc. - we are inclined to believe what we hear/ready
Stereotype Threat
Activating or making group identity salient has an effect on person's motivation and performance Most of us who don't have those stereotype efforts will→ try harder
Ambady Shih Pittinsky
5 and 10-year-olds I. boys and girls, Asian-American and euro-American II. manipulation: made either gender or ethnicity silent through simple drawings of two children playing together III. independent measure: performance on age appropriate math quiz If you emphasize their identity with culture than they perform better If you emphasize their identity with gender, they perform worse
Fredrickson et al 1998
Sex roles, social norms and expectancies University of michigan undergrads Rate 3 consumer products - unisex fragrance, clothing and food item - includes trying on swimsuit or sweater and looking at self in the mirror Woman who tried on swimsuit did worse onIQ test, Woman who tried on sweater did better
Weisbuch, Ambady et al 2009
stereotypic/racist nonverbal reactions on most popular tv shows Shows that were trying to be racially equal, would give racial bias reactions and kids would see it through the tv (UNCONSCIOUS BIAS) The tv shows unknowingly influenced and changed your racism without one even knowing
Martin gilens, yale political scientist (2001 article
Major network evening news broadcasts over 15 years Main US news magazines stories over 15 years Results: poverty in america stories: 65% blacks in video or photographs, but only 29% of poor population ⅔ times when talking about poverty would show black people even though only ⅓ of the homeless population was black. STEREOTYPES PEOPLE TO THINKING MOST HOMELESS PEOPLE ARE BLACK
Payne et al 2017
Map with slave popoulation concentration from past, lines up with map of todays areas with highest racism scores Cultural effects are there and long lasting Gets in the heads of kids at a young age when they do not know what is right or wrong Results in them being unknowingly racist
Uhlmann poehlman and bargh 2008
A minimum wage dishwasher who wins the lottery Continues to work at his job afterwards Protestant drives capitalism Outside of US if win lottery and still work dishwasher they'd think you're nuts
The puritan Ethic (Uhlmann et al 2011
Founding puritan ethic for austerity and denial of pleasure Against promiscuity and for self denial and control Second generation asian americans possess both asian and american identities
Misattribution of arousal (Zillman and Bryant
Excitation transfer theory Arousal carries over to other activities Right after exercising on a bike = awareness of arousal and awareness of its source = no effect 10 minutes afterwards = no arousal, no awareness of arousal = no effect 5 minutes afterwards = arousal still present No awareness of arousal = EFFECT
Dutton and Aron 1974
crossing bridge, meet woman, she givers number, more calls from those who were on the unsafe bridge
Schwarz and Clore 1983
How's the weather down there?" People are less satisfied with their life if they are asked on a rainy dark day vs a sunny bright day Weather carries over into your feelings
Hirshleifer and Shumway 2003
Amir & Ariely: cheating and the 10 commandments
- participants recall as many of the 10 commandments as they could - then were given a matrix of numbers "some of these numbers add up to 10" - self report: participants asked how many they got right in 4 minutes. get paid for number correct. test would immediately be thrown away - or hand in - repeating the 10 commandments people didn't cheat
Foulk et al 2015
Contagious rudeness in the workplace Witnessed rude or polite behavior of one employee to another after being asked to take a weekend shift The perception behavior link: Principle of ideomotor action (W. James) Mimicry, imitation, vicarious learning Mirror neurons and premotor cortex Ideomotor theory: perceiving another's actions make it more likely you will do the same thing because of shared representations for the same type of
The perception-action link:
animals in groups: fish, antelope, etc. Copying behaviors of those around you/mimicry Infants show mimicry at very young age supporting its hard wired nature Andrew Meltzoff shows this w/ infants mimicking his face
Charles and Bargh 1999
Chameleon effect: nonconscious behavioral mimicry Rubbing face and shaking foot Imitation increases the other participants rating of the interaction going more smoothly People who are more empathic also found to imitate more than non empathic individuals
Fowler and Christakis (2010)
Contagion spread of cooperative behavior through 3 degrees of separation in experimental studies of social networks If you know someone who knows someone who knows someone who is obese, you are more likley to be obese Same for depressed and happy etc. Be more careful about who you allow to be your friends, connecting yourself to a network increases the likelihood you will be the same way Knowing one lonely person increases your risk to be lonely by 40%
Kramer et al 2014, Facebook study
Changing news feed changed users mood and positivity/negativity of their own posts
Jacob et al 2011
sales people told to repeat back as much as possible of what customer is saying - sold more products - increased customer satisfaction
Wiltermuth & Heath 2009
Synchrony and cooperation Mere rhythmic synchrony produced 'group like' bonds between strangers The longer couples have been together, the more they start to look like each other Naturally mimicking the other person Same lines in face develop
Mark Frank, U. Buffalo
Facilitating bonding through imitation and mimicry increased information attained and also the quality of the information What we see is what we do
Harris, Bargh, Brownell 2009
Food ads prime eating behavior Children and adults viewed five min tv comedy show clip Embedded were food ads (snack and healthy) or control ads Bowl of goldfish snack crackers available Those exposed to food ads ate 45% more of the snack crackers while watching the TV show Alcohol ads and teenage drinking (Naimi et al 2016) National sample over 1000 underage teenagers Among kids who are having at least one drink of alc in a month The amount of alc ads seen had a huge effect on the amount of alc consumed
Contagion and Conformity
But we perceive more than just the physical behaviors of people We also perceive situations that have certain kinds of behaviors associated with them
Langer et al 1977
: Situational scripts Mindlessness and not paying attention When out of order not sure what happens next People can be fooled by people going according to a script Different situations call for different reactions
Roger Barker
Aarts and Dijksterhuis 2001
The silence of the library Students taking a note to either the library or the cafeteria Along the way they are quieter and talk more softly in the hallways, if they are on their way to the library compared to the cafeteria Even if you're not physically there, the norms of a location can influence you
Berger et al 2008
Priming contextual influences on voting behavior Schools = more support for education Church = voting in line with religious/church positions Contextual priming influences important real world decisions
Cohn Fehr and Marechal 2014
Situated Identities: What causes IB to cheat or lie or make bad decisions? Primed investment bankers' identity or not Competitive atmosphere in the company is what causes IB to act irrationally Contacted a group of IB on a Saturday Flip a coin 20 times, however many times coin lands on heads you get paid Thinking about an environment affects your decision making
Dissociations between Will and Action
Frontal lobe damage Executive control structures "Environmental dependency syndrome" Everyone has ideas coming from the outside causing us to behave
Keizer et al 2008
The spreading of disorder: Contagious anti-social behavior Broken windows theory Graffiti condition and non-graffiti condition, with no graffiti = less litter from the paper on bike With graffiti = more litter from paper left on bike When sign that said the number of fatalities on roadways was active, there was a 21% higher increase in wrecks within 10 miles after the sign
Robert Cialdini
norms National park signs and social obedience Three versus one thief (of redwood bark) Different signs with the number of thieves on sign Less thieves = less bark taken More thieves on sign = more bark taken Must we always do what others are doing? Passive contagion influences are overridden by current purposes Motivations and goals dominate other influences when they conflict
Macrae and Johnston 1998
Priming helping did increase helping Except when it conflicted with an important goal
Chartrand, Maddux, and Lakin 2005: in-group and mimicry
more likely to mimic behaviors of others if they are similar to you (race, religion, gender, etc.) - in group
Leander et al. 2013
imitation by in-group members: feel that room is warmer - imitation by outgrip members: feel that room is colder - if person you like smiles at you it makes you feel warm and fuzzy, but if your enemy smiles at you it feels dangerous and cold
people used to think you could tell a person's personality by their face
Willis & Todorov 2006
Trait judgments of faces presented for 100 ms made no difference to no time constraints How attractive, likable, trustworthy Same judgements for 100, 500, 1000 ms
Ballew & Todorov 2007
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Fiske 2007 "Friend or Foe":
Universals in impressions of others Warm or cold or trustworthiness: first assessment Competence: second assessment Both made lightning fast based on faces alone Power of first impressions
Olivola & Todorov 2010
Faces are not diagnostic of the traits we immediately perceive in them
Darwin 1872
the expression of emotions in animals and man Mistaking current faces as long term Emotional expressions are immediate and involuntary communication to others about the current situation
Zebrowitz & Montepare
We overgeneralize the automatic inferences we make from faces, placing too much confidence in them and acting on them as if they were strongly diagnostic Babyfaceness: more likely to be found innocent in trial Attractive people have less sentences Symmetric faces more attractive Averaging faces produces more attractive faces Probably is cue to disease and health status
Slater 2001
newborns look longer at attractive vs unattractive faces Viewing attractive opposite sex faces naturally activates reward centers of the brain Halo effect: people who are more attractive tend to be rates more positively
Busetta 2013
More attractive people called back for interviews Ingroup outgroup effects: biased against other groups
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Greenwald, Banaji, Nosek
negative or positive affect automatically associated with social category Becomes active immediately and automatically to influence responses without intention and despite attempts to control it (Uncontrollable, unintentional)
Donn Byrne
manipulated similarity of attitude and value surveys People like the other person more to the extent their values and attitudes overlap In group membership also signals shared goals and values Implicit egotism: the tendency to prefer people, places, or things
Pelham and Carvallo
Positive feelings about self spill over to objects, events, people, outcomes, etc. George more likely to move to Georgia Ken and Kenneth to Kentucky Louis to Louisiana Virgil to Virginia More likely to marry people with the same birthday