World Cultures Exam Terms (2022)

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Mr. Lubbers Semester review terms

122 Terms
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Conforming (to a different culture)
The ability of a person to view a different culture from the perspective or with the same cultural framework as someone who is a native to that culture.
Complaining (about culture)
When a person gripes about a different culture but only to another person within that culture (as way of bonding and setting up cultural barriers)
Confronting (culture)
Where a person opposes a different culture because their own culture is (obviously) the correct one and the other (foreign)culture is the wrong one.
fear, powerlessness, and partial knowledge
The 3 factors that lead to misunderstanding of "the other" according to Smith in Chapter 1 in "Learning from the Stranger"
limited spiritual horizon
Smith's notion how we (Christians) assume that God is at work in our own culture but not in the culture of the foreigner.
Richard Freeman's theory about diversity within academic fields
Academics are more likely to do better research when they work with people outside their cultural group.
Adam Galinsky's finding about intercultural relationships
He discovered that deeper romantic relationships affect how you view your culture and other's cultures.
dignity culture
Culture where personal insults are ignored or (if bigger) depend on governing authorities to solve. (usually affiliated with people from northern states)
honor culture
Culture where personal insults are met with violent reactions (usually affiliated with people from southern states)
low context
Cultures where communication is direct, explicit, and verbal.
high context
Cultures in which less has to be said or written because meaning is conveyed by the shared context.
The neurological process by which we become aware of our environment.
field dependence
The degree to which perception of an object is influenced by the background or environment in which it appears.
A three step process of selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory information.
The first step in the perception process- conscious manner in which our senses are attuned to what we focus on.
The second step in the perception process-our capacity to group objects into a unified whole.
The third step in perception process-our ability to attach meaning to sensory information.
"TV as birth control"
Article that explores the theory that TV soap operas actually reduce the number of children in developing countries due to the number of strong women who were in empowered on these shows who did not have big families.
Neal Gabler's theory of situations comedies
He argues that people watch TV shows more and more because they use the characters on TV as ideal friends and avoid the messiness of real friendships.
Shasta Nelson's 3 components of friendships (positivity, vulnerability, consistency)
settling for tourism
An approach to Christianity that disregards real diversity for the sake of superficial engagement from the safety of distance and superiority. Foreigners are "interesting" but not necessarily people from whom we can learn.
David Crystal
Language expert that explains the recent historical dominance of English is not because it is a superior language, but mostly because of imperialist policies of the US in other countries.
Receiving the kingdom of God like a child
Has nothing to do with "innocence" but rather a realization of a lack of power (Being a child was to be beneath everyone) Jesus here is telling us to recognize that we have no power. Unless we are okay being at this lowered place, we will not fit in the kingdom of God.
Samaritans (reasons why they were hated)
  1. They were ethnically compromised (the "half breeds" of Assyrians and Jews) 2. They opposed the rebuilding of the temple (because they built a temple on Mt. Gerizim) 3. They only considered the Pentateuch (first 5 books of the Bible) authoritative.

Darrel Block's interpretation of the Good Samaritan

Loving your neighbor as yourself means loving the foreigner as yourself [1. Learn THEIR language, 2. Work to Understand THEM 3. Be attentive to THEM]

Amy Oden ('s danger within the Good Samaritan story)
She fears Christians will always see themselves as "host" (provider/ the generous rescuer/helper) and never entering into the others perspective, to share the other's pain or even to see one's own need.
John Nolland
Interprets the Good Samaritan as teaching us the "ditch perspective" --that only when we are in greatest need will we be able to see that refusal to provide assistance that can convict us of not being neighborly.
the Hebrew word for work/worship
"to suffer with"
One of the responses to the "other" where we attempt to integrate the other into our social body. In other words-we try to make the "other" into a version of ourselves.
One of the responses to the "other" where anything that we cannot integrate is pushed out as an enemy that contaminates.
One of the responses to the "other" where the attempt is to (partially) accept the other despite their strangeness as long as those differences stay private.
One of the responses to the "other" where the attempt here is to realize that beneath it all we're pretty much the same. The "other" is no different than we are.
Listening to the other
One of the responses to the "other" where the goal is to remove our assumed position of superiority so that we can listen and learn from those who see things differently than we do.
Death from overwork in Japan
saving face
Act that avoids the loss of a persons dignity or prestige in Asian culture.
One of the great fathers of the early Christian church and author of "Confessions" where he described God's grace to him as an infant.
Learning to behave as expected within a social/cultural situation
The preference of certain values and assumptions because a person belongs to a certain culture.
Modern (mindset)
The emphasis within a culture on one's individuality--being independent and in charge of one's own thoughts and uncontrolled by anyone else.
Postmodern (mindset)
The critical evaluation of the modern mindset where people realize they are often products of their environment and do not independently value their preferences, but favor them because of their unique environment/community.
Common Grace
The grace of God by which he gives people innumerable blessings that are not part of salvation (police officers who work to stop crime who may not necessarily be Christian)
primordial grace
David Smith's term describing the nature of receiving an identity from a nurturing context (culture) we did not construct.
Smith's label for the process of placing all the benefits of culture onto one side and all the effects of sin onto another culture.
Smith's label for the process of recognizing our cultural differences and deciding that none is better than any other ("live and let live")--various cultures are a type of colorful carnival that we can enjoy or ignore.
Smith's label for the process of assuming we are trapped in the cages of our own culture--and there is nothing you can do to get out of it.
Imago Dei
Latin for "image of God" (Smith uses this to describe the obligation of humans to make the world better equipped for the flourishing of all creatures.)
High degree of power distance
People accept their rank in society regardless of unfairness
low degree of power distance
People work to make society as equal as possible & demand justification for inequalities of power.
A loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of only themselves (& family)
A tightly-knit social framework in which individuals can expect their in-group to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.
A preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material rewards for success.
A preference in society for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life.
long term orientation
A societal preference for a pragmatic approach to the future--do what works to prepare a changing future.
short term orientation
A societal preference to maintain time-honored traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion.
A society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and human drives related to enjoying life and having fun.
A society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.
The scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, and societies, in both the present and past.
The virtue by which people are able to successfully and healthfully integrate their sexuality into life (within the Creational norms outlined in Scripture: sex after marriage between husband and wife); recognized as one of the fruits of the Holy Spirit. Also one of the vows of religious life.
seduction capital
The theory that we only accumulate objects (clothes, cars, houses) in order to communicate to other people how desirable we are. What we really are saying with our purchases is "you want to be me!"
Helen Fisher
An anthropologist who in 2003 used the Passionate Love Scale and an fMRI to investigate blood flow in the brains of people reporting to be 'madly in love' which supports the thesis presented that romantic love is hard wired into human brains by millions of years of evolution and is designed to enable lovers to mate.
dopamine system
The chemical which when released into the brain leads to feelings of reward. People with high dopamine systems tend to seek out risk, novelty, adventure, are creative and curious and want their partners to have the same desires.
serotonin system
The chemical which when released in the brain generates a personality that tends toward order, structure, planning and stability--they tend to follow rules and respect authority. People with high serotonin levels tend to prefer partners with the same structure.
Testosterone system
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the addition of testosterone either gender creates the tendency to be analytical, logical, direct, decisive. They tend to be drawn to the estrogen system.
estrogen system
the most important of the female sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the addition of estrogen in either gender creates the tendency to have good verbal skills and people skills, who's very intuitive and who's very nurturing and emotionally expressive. They tend to be drawn to the testosterone system.
slow love
Helen Fisher's concept of the prolonged "dating" period that has emerged in the advent of dating websites and apps. People are more thorough in their search for a spouse as the pool of available candidates has increased.
paradox of choice
When too many options are available, especially when all of them are attractive, we experience decision paralysis and regret.
"stable ambiguity"
Esther Perel's notion of people being too scared to be on your own but too scared to be in a deep relationship
97% of people in contemporary romantic relationships want 5 things
1.) They want somebody that respects them, 2.) somebody they can trust and confide in, 3.) somebody who makes them laugh, 4.)somebody who makes enough time for them and 5.)somebody who they find physically attractive
Most people in (Medieval) romantic relationships wanted 3 things
1.) companionship, 2.) economic support, 3.) & children.
How does a person stay happy in their marriage?
  1. Get married later in life 2. Share power 3. Be Reliable

Love metaphors in individualistic cultures
Tend to be representative of physical violence or sickness. (falling, struck, heartache, smitten)
storge love
a love style characterized by caring and friendship-usually demonstrated between parent and child
Philia Love
An affection and concern that is demonstrated between friends.
eros love
an erotic, passionate style of love often characterized by short-lived relationships
agape love
an unconditional love for others because they are created in the image of God
Importance of the Trinity (for love)
For God to be love (as repeated in the gospel of John) God needed something/someone to love. Because God exists in three person (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) He has experience perfect love in eternity. Without this understanding God could only BECOME loving once he made creation meaning that God was somehow incomplete in his nature before creation started.
Johnson/Lakoff love metaphor
"a collaborative work of art"
"everlasting life"
The Jewish understanding of salvation implies a collective mentality (not about you as an individual saying the sinner's prayer or asking Jesus into your heart) but being part of God's chosen people and doing his will on earth.
Christianity against culture
Bruce Riley Ashford's category of Christians who see the culture around them as deeply sinful and seek to purify themselves from these influences by embracing legalism and a combative attitude toward society around them.
Christianity of culture
Bruce Riley Ashford's category of Christians who seek to join the culture around them in its more healthy pursuits. They tend to overlook morally gray areas and may dilute the strength of their Christian witness as they are tempted to follow in whatever may be particularly popular with a society at the time without questioning its effect on the community of believers.
Christianity in and for Culture
Bruce Riley Ashford's category of Christians who view human beings as representatives of Christ who live their lives in the midst of and for the good of their cultural context, and whose cultural lives are characterized by obedience and witness.
marriage to several people at the same time
the practice of being married to only one person at a time
a form of marriage in which women have more than one husband
Rational Choice Theory
A theory that states that individuals act in their own best interest.
Market Economies
Economic systems where individuals make their own decisions about what to produce, how to produce it, and for whom to produce it.
Gift economies
Economic systems that consist of situations where goods and services are exchanged without an expected or immediate return.
Tamil societies notion of passionate love-the overwhelming sense of intense and dumbfounded longing for another person that we might call "crazy in love" in English.
Emile Durkheim's description of the condition in which society provides little guidance and leaves people feeling lost and disconnected. Resulting from the lost traditions of society in the midst of transitioning into the Industrial era.
Passionate Love
The experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense attraction-produced by rush of dopamine, a drop in serotonin, and a rise in cortisol that creates intense desire.
Companionate Love
The love which activates the attachment circuits of the brain. It is oxytocin-rich and induces a loving calm and sense of security.
"leaving it to the experts"
the false assumption that people with expertise in a specific field (medicine, law, business) will automatically be cultural experts of those ideas as well.
the notion of punishing a lawbreaker to satisfy society's' demands for revenge.
Specific Deterrence
punishment inflicted on criminals to discourage them from committing future crimes
General Deterrence
punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the general public and to discourage the commission of offenses
change the character of the criminal so they no longer desire to be a criminal.
specific deterrence
Punishment inflicted on criminals to discourage them from committing future crimes
general deterrence
punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the general public and to discourage the commission of offenses
(crime) prevention
measures taken to reduce the opportunity for crime commission by individuals predisposed to such behavior (CCTV)
Principle of Normality
Norway's incarceration policy of making prison seem less like a standard jail cell and more like ordinary life.
Principle of Humanity
Norway's incarceration policy of always treating inmates with respect and dignity (rather than brutalize them as a reminder of their previous mistakes)
dynamic security
Norway's incarceration policy of regular interaction between prisoners and correctional officers that promotes problem-solving, information sharing, and rapport building.
Emphasis on reintegration
Norway's incarceration policy of training correctional officers to know the process of coming back into free society and to help the inmate navigate it.
A religious cult practiced in the Caribbean and the southern US, combining elements of Roman Catholic ritual with traditional African magical and religious rites, and characterized by sorcery and spirit possession. Functionally it works as a type of secret police force to keep citizens obedient to cultural norms.
zombification (and its purpose in Haiti today)
a sanctum imposed by recognized spiritual authorities, as a form of punishment for criminals where the offender is drugged and then "resurrected" to serve as a slave of the voodoo priest.
"Pleading Purity"
David Smith's category of learning from the stranger where we assume that contamination is "out there" rather than within our own culture.
"Settle for Tourism"
David Smith's category of learning from the stranger where we travel in the world, but never get the out of the cultivate bubble where everyone speaks our language, experiences are catered toward commercialism and in general minimizes our experience with another different culture.
"Trusting Technology"
David Smith's category of learning from the stranger where we assume that new forms of communication (email, translator apps) will allow humans to share meaning without error.
"Leaving it to the Experts"
David Smith's category of learning from the stranger where we mistakenly assume that people who have significant education and experience in one area of life will be equally as competent in intercultural affairs.
John Durham Peters
Argues that the word "communication evokes a utopia where nothing is misunderstood, hearts are open, and expression is uninhibited."
lingua franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Philip Jenkins "typical" Christian
A Nigerian woman in a village or a poor Brazilian women living in a favela.
A periodic invitation by your society, typically religious, to get people together for an event that marks an occasion.
an ancient Roman festival and holiday in honour of the god Saturn, held on 17 December. The holiday was celebrated with a public banquet, followed by private gift-giving, continual partying, and a carnival atmosphere that overturned Roman social norms: gambling was permitted, and masters provided table service for their slaves as it was seen as a time of liberty for both slaves and freedmen alike.
Yom Kippur
Jewish Day of Atonement that emphasized fasting and reflecting on one's sins.
An Islamic fast held from sunrise to sunset that is carried out during the month of Ramadan
Ritual that encompases the feeling of sadness in Papua New Guinea the person in grief has three days to morn and the society with be gentle with them and they don't have to work. On day 3 the person in grief needs to leave a coconut filled with water on the third day that is meant to soak up the sadness. After the third day is over, you are meant to toss the water away.
Birkat Ilanot
A Jewish festival of gratitude for the beginning of spring
"sorry day"
Australian day of apologizing for the theft of Aboriginal children in the 20th century.


service to another by labor or effort

concretization of the ideal
The idea that if small (often incremental) areas of life that can be ordered, it will instill hope that more areas of life can be transformed in positive ways.