History 2

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133 Terms
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Journalists and authors who exposed America's social and economic problems were known as ...
"How the Other Half Lives"
Jacob Riis shocked America, especially middle-class women, with his book, ...
Department stores
NY Consumers' League fought for:
National Women's Trade Union League & Committees of Public Safety fought for:
Anti alcohol, Carrie Nation, Tired of seeing women beaten
WCTU & Anti-Saloon League fought for:
Women's voting rights
Suffrage was for:
The working class needed their kids to work because they needed their wages to survive
Child labor laws fought for:
"The Jungle" & Meat Companies
Upton Sinclair wrote the book ... hoping socialism would become popular. Instead, it upset Americans over what was happening in ... companies
1. The pure food and drug act 2. Meat inspection act (Combined to make the FDA now)
After President ... read "The Jungles", two laws were passed by congress, they were:
Intellectuals & Optimistic progressives
Reform takes a radical turn when ... on college campuses believe, if given the power, they can change America for the better. They become known as ...
In someones head
Most societal change begins ...
Charles Darwin:
Evolutionist, Eugenics, completely against helping the poor, "survival of the fittest"
Herbert Spencer:
Industrialists & White man's burden (white people are at the top of the social scale, so they need to reach out to the people on the bottom)
Spencer's ideas will be embraced by many ..., like Andrew Carnegie and also by expansionists who believed in the ... espoused by Rudyard Kipling.
Traditionalists & modernists
Darwin's ideas will set up an ongoing battle between ... and ... This battle continues (although usually with different names) today
Liberal Christians
Even some ... tried to make peace with Darwinism by incorporating it into their beliefs
The communist manifesto, capital (money), saw everything in economic terms, battle between proletariat vs. bourgeoisie
Karl Marx:
proletariat's (oppressed) vs bourgeoisie (oppressor)
Marx's ideas can be summed up as a battle between the ... and the ...
private property & collectivism
Marx believed that a fair and just society would only be reached if societies got rid of ... and replaced it with ...
studied behavior
Sigmund Freud:
original sin
Freud totally rejected the Christian doctrine of
your childhood, your relationship with your mother, your past
Freud believed that people's problems revolved around ...
modernists & material (they were atheists and agnostic) (they believed there was only here, when you die, you just die)
Darwin, Marx, Spencer, and Freud all shared one thing in common. They all were ... They all believed in a ... world only. Thus, the answers to life were not to be found in the Bible (or in any other sacred writing)
We all own this land, he was anti- private property
What did Woody Guthrie mean by his song "This Land is Your Land, This Land is My Land" ?
populist movement
Progressives got some of their ideas from a rural movement known as ...
Some progressives believed a better economic future for America was when the people owned and controlled the economy through the government (government ownership). This is known as ...
Progressives did not believe in people should have decision-making power concerning most issues. Thus, they pushed for ... to control most facets of the economy and society.
Many progressives believed in ... which basically argues that the end result justified the means to bring this about.
original sin
One of the most important beliefs of most progressives was the rejection of the Christian belief of ... Because they rejected this doctrine, they believed they could actually change human nature for the better.
All progressives were idealists and ...
local, state, national
What were the three venues of change for progressives?
political machines
On the state level, progressives fought against ...
1. direct primaries for parties 2. Initiative petition (way to bypass state legislature) 3. recall petition (petition to vote to fire someone doing a bad job)
Robert LaFollette, republican governor of Washington, pushed for three reforms to fight political machines.
was a nurse who taught birth control to American women
Margaret Sanger ...
the progressive "scientific" movement to raise the IQ level of America was known as ...
segregation and sterility measures
The biological effort to get rid of "undesirable" Americans included reducing the number of minorities and low IQ whites through ... and ...
Margaret Sanger
One of the leaders of American Eugenics was ...
Theodore Roosevelt
The first of three consecutive progressive-minded presidents was ...
1. police commissioner of NYC 2. assistant secretary of Navy 3. national hero 4. despised by republican establishments 5. wealthy, vibrant personality, driven
The basic outline of Theodore Roosevelt's life and career:
... is the largest president in US history
Woodrow Wilson
... won the presidential election of 1912
1. take power from states (senators): 17th amendment 2. increase power of presidency: executive orders and openly flouting the constitution 3. increase the number of agencies and the power of the Bureaucracy in Washington: take power from congress and the people and give it to experts
List the 3 ways that Progressive elites believed they could continue the transformation of America on a national level
Federal Reserve Act
The congressional act to stop Recessions and Depressions via experts controlling the interest rates was ... of 1913
The Amendment that, for the first time. gave the Federal Government the authority to tax and individual's salary was the ... Amendment
17th Amendment:
Prohibition; 1. both progressives and traditionalists pushed for this, popular across the USA 2. will lead to several unexpected answers
18th Amendment:
Women's Suffrage; 1. make more divided, but not the way you may think 2. president Wilson 3. made voting for both genders part of the constitution
19th Amendment:
1. people get tired of the "do-gooders" trying to control their lives 2. US constitution hampered the movement - Amendment hard to pass 3. "Liberals" = 1920
What two things will interrupt the Progressive Movement's efforts to build their paradise on earth?
long-term, short-term, and an emotional spark (bloodshed)
Most wars are the result of 3 things: ... causes, ... causes and a ...
Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie
Gavrilo Princip assassinated ...
Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria) and the Allied Powers (France+colonies, Russia, Great Britain+colonies, Italy+colonies, US)
The opposing sides of The Great War were the ... and the ...
Trench Warfare
The defining characteristics of The Great War (WW1) was ...
no-man's land
The area between opposing trenches was known as ...
over the top
Leaving your trench to attack the opposing side was known as ...
bolshevik revolution
Germany had to fight in two theaters during the Great War. In 1917, due to the ... Germany was able to leave the Eastern Theater and move over a million troops to the Western Theater
Trench Foot
A major health problem during the Great War was ...
US divided, trade with both sides, Wilson wished to mediate, domestic issues, isolationist movement
Why did the United States declare neutrality?
Great Britain using a blockade
What country (and how) first broke American neutrality
U-boats and Submarines
In order to break the British blockade of their ports, Germany created a vast fleet of ... commonly known as ...
Lusitania (May 5th, 1915)
In 1915, Germany angered the American public when it sunk the ... killing 1200 people including 128 Americans
Zimmerman Telegram (January, 1917)
In 1917, Germany realized it would probably go to war with the United States. They reached out to Mexico via the ...
What was Germany's offer to Mexico?
Unrestricted submarine warfare
During the public outrage over the telegram, Germany then declared ... and promptly sank five more American ships (cargo ships)
As a result, the United States Congress declared ... on Germany on April 6, 1917
1. economics 2. culture (language) 3. Great Britain seen as mother country 4. Allied propaganda depicts Germany as evil (articles in newspapers) 5. Belief Allies fighting for democracy
Why did the United States ultimately join the Allies?
John Pershing
The commanding general of the American Expeditionary Force was ...
"Over There"
The theme song, which became the motto for the Great War was ...
broadway producer George M. Cohan
Who wrote the defining song of both WW1 and WW2?
muese-argonne offensive (sept. 26 - nov. 11, 1918)
The Allies, led by American soldiers, broke the German lines during the offensive known as ...
Alvin York
The greatest hero of WW1 was ...
Bernard Baruch
... led the War Industries Board
George Creel
... led the Committee on Public Information
Rosie the Riveter
President Wilson pushed for women to take the place of men in the economy. A song and then a poster became popular and finally the nickname for women working in factories and other jobs. What were these women called?
1. Income tax on corporations 2. Higher income tax on individuals 3. War bonds: helped with morale 4. Borrowing (debt)
What four ways did America pay for the war?
Spanish Influenza
More people were killed by this disease than combat. What was this disease that killed at least 50 million people in 1918 and 1919?
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty that officially ended the Great War was the ...
shell shock
Some American soldiers suffered from ... which today we would call PTSD
The Red Scare
Due to the communist takeover of Russia and a growing number of socialist and communist parties in the United States, America underwent a period of anxiety and fear known as ...
Sacco and Vanzetti
The most famous criminal trial of the early 1920s involved what two Italian immigrants?
In January 1919, the 18th Amendment was ratified. This ushered in a period known as ...
The Roaring Twenties and The Jazz Age
Nicknamed for the 1920s include ... and ...
modernism vs traditionalism
The philosophical divide in though was currently known as ... vs ...
urban vs rural and young vs old
Social differences include ... vs ... and ... vs ...
Women voted for the first time in a presidential election in ...
Harding, republican
The winner of the 1920 presidential election was ... He was a member of the ... party
Unemployment under Warren G. Harding went from over 12% to ...
heart attack
President Harding dies in 1923, in San Francisco of a ...
... replaced Harding as president
Teapot Dome
During the election of 1924, journalists and the Democrats tried to associate President Coolidge with the ... scandal
The Living Constitution
Many Americans were tired of the "do-gooder" progressives. Thus, the Progressives could not get public support for more constitutional amendments. Progressive intellectuals came up with a new idea known as ... This was successful effort to include evolution into constitutional theory and get courts to approve their legislation
Woodrow Wilson
Future president ... heavily pushed this new idea of a "living constitution"
Business leaders, Henry Ford
... especially ... enjoyed immense popularity during the 1920s, and after
Consumer Revolution ("buying on time")
A new way to obtain instant gratification in purchasing goods was called ...
Listerine, halitosis
One of the early and greatest advertising slogans involved ... mouthwash company. They created a new word ... to sell their product
Clara Bow, It
One of the most popular female movie stars of the silent era was ... She starred in the huge blockbuster movie ...
character, money
Traditional ideas of success such as ... , religion, and social standing, were replaced wit the gratification of personal needs and possessions primarily based on ...
Babe Ruth
Perhaps the biggest celebrity of the 1920s was ...
... became the primary way to help widows, the poor, and the community
1924 Quota Act (immigration reform)
Led by Harvard-trained intellectuals, Congress passed the ... which drastically cut the number of immigrants coming into America
Billy Sunday and Aimee Semple McPherson
... and ... used the radio to spread religious ideas to a national audience.
Scopes (the theory of evolution vs. creationism being taught in schools)
One of the big showdowns between modernists and traditionalists resulted in ... trial. This tension continues today.
The entire 1920s was a period where alcohol was illegal. This was known as ...
Alphonse Caponi
... became the most powerful and richest criminal in Chicago. He basically ruled the south side of Chicago
"The Lost Generation"
Intellectuals who did not like either the religious or the secular modernists were known as ...
H. L. Mencken
What writer/journalist mocked American society through witty and funny articles?
Herbert Hoover
... won the election of 1928
... was the president when the stock market crashed
Black Tuesday
The stock market crashed on October 29, 1929. This became known as ...
A domino problem that began happening after the crash were ...
1. Meetings (no direct aid to those losing their jobs) 2. Smoot-Hawley tariff:1930 3. building projects: hoover dam 4. Hoovers idea: reconstruction finance corporation: 1932
Hoover tried to solve the economic downturn by using 4 primary approaches.
The Bonus Army
During the election of 1932, the ... made up of WW1 veterans marched on Washington. This hurt Hoover's chances of winning reelection
Franklin Roosevelt
... ran against Hoover in the 1932 election
New Deal
Franklin Roosevelt's program was known as ...
FDR was one of 3 presidents of ... ancestry
Eleanor (his cousin)
FDR married ...
"Fireside Chats" (3Rs- relief, recovery, reform)
FDR gave hope to the American people through his ...
Inflate the economy, doing it by having the government spend massive amounts of money
What was FDR's big idea regarding the economy?
agricultural adjustment act, they would give farmers paycheck if they would cut back of their livestock and crops to raise demand and raise prices.
The AAA stood for ... How was this program used to raise the price of crops and meat?
civilian conservation corps, young (under 25) single men worked on national parks. they signed up for one year, were payed 20 dollars a month, and were provided with everything they needed
`Explain the CCC
national recovery administration, the blue eagle
NRA stood for ... ; it's symbol was the ...
Wendell Wilkie
What democrat became so angry with FDR that he switched parties and ran against the president in the 1940 election?
PWA: public works administration WPA: works progress administration
What New Deal program hired workers to build roads, community buildings, write plays, interview people, photograph the poor, etc...?
Indian New Deal (abolished 1887 Dawes Act, re-instituted Tribal property and Tribal courts)
The ... returned land and governance to America's native tribes
"Black Monday" (May 27, 1935)
The Supreme Court declared several New Deal programs "unconstitutional". This was known as ...
He had the idea to set up a gov. pension plan. 200 dollars a month for people over 60 that voluntarily retired. They had to spend that 200 dollars and have receipts to bring to a gov. agency in their town. FDR shut down the idea bc there was no reason for a gov. agency in each town. (FDR then came up with social security)
Francis Townsend was a democrat who opposed FDR. Why?
Catholic Priest who wanted FDR to start nationalizing. He got his idea from Hitler and Mussolini. Had lunch with FDR and start to attack him. FDR shuts his idea down bc he believes in private property. Coughlin started blaming Jews on his nationalized radio station, he got taken off the radio by the Catholic Church.
Father Charles Coughlin was a democrat who opposed FDR. Why?
Super progressive Governor of Louisiana, he felt like he needed a national audience. He ran for senate and won easily. His organization (Share our Wealth Club) helped his win. Share our Wealth Club= take money from the rich and give it to the poor, he also believed that people making over 1 million per year should have 100% income tax. Rich people started hiding their money, mostly in foundations.
Huey Long was a democrat who opposed FDR. Why?
radio, movies, sports (baseball, college football) FBI issued a top 10 most wanted list, gangsters wanted to be on it
What are ways that people coped with the depression.
Basically and FBI agent
What was a G-man?
"Law of unintended consequences"
What was the unintended consequence of FDR's AAA program?
Okies (sometimes Arkies)
Poor migrants to California were derisively called ...
Bakersfield (capital of Okies)
... was the unofficial California capital of country music
Al Capone
What Chicago gangster ran a soup kitchen for poor people?