What main issue arose quickly between Texans and the Mexican government?
Mexico outlawed slavery in Texas and required all immigrants to convert to Roman Catholicism. (AMSCO, pg. 231)
What three things did the Missouri Compromise do?
- The Missouri Compromise admitted Missouri as a slave-holding state.
- Admitted Maine as a free state.
- Prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36'30' (AMSCO, pg. 157)
This was a plan for federal support of internal improvements, a strong tariff and a national bank?
Henry Clay's American System (AMSCO, pg. 152)
He wrote The Liberator, and was the first major abolitionist.
William Lloyd Garrison. (AMSCO, pg. 215)
These two sisters were the only white southerners to become abolitionist leaders.
The Grimke Sisters (Sarah and Angelina Grimke) were two white southerners in the south who disagreed with the treatment of African Americans. (AMSCO, pg. 214)
What is the name that God wants America to move west?
Manifest Destiny (AMSCO, pg. 231)
What coordinates were a campaign slogan regarding the boundary of Oregon?
54 ° 40'. "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight" (AMSCO, pg. 233)
Who was considered a "dark horse" candidate in the 1844 election?
James K Polk (AMSCO, pg. 232)
Who was president when Texas was annexed?
John Tyler (AMSCO, pg. 233)
What was the final dividing line of Oregon?
At the 49th parallel (AMSCO pg 233)
What war took place from 1846 to 1848?
The Mexican-American War (AMSCO 2015, pg. 233-234)
Who ran in the 1848 election?
Senator Cass, General Zachary Taylor, Martin Van Buren (AMSCO 2015, pg. 248)
Who won the 1848 election?
The Whig nominee: Zachary Taylor (AMSCO 2016, pg. 248)
Who was the American Captain that moved for California's independence?
John C. Fremont (AMSCO 2016, pg 234)
Who was the "Hero of Buena Vista" ?
Zachary Taylor (npg.si.edu)
What did the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo do?
- Mexico recognized Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas
- US took possession of California and New Mexico
- paid $15M to assume responsibility for any claims American citizens made against Mexico (pg 234)
What four states became part of the US because of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
California, Utah, New Mexico and Nevada (AMSCO page 234) (?)
When was gold discovered in CA?
What was the Fugitive Slave Act?
Law that required the return of escaped slaves to their owners, even if the escaped slave was found in a Northern territory (pg 250)
What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
Divided the Nebraska Territory into Kansas and Nebraska and those states are left to decide for themselves whether slave-state or free-state (popular sovereignty). (AMSCO pg. 252)
The Republican Party was formed in response to what?
Response to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act because they opposed spread of slavery into territories (Period 5 Pg. 3)
What was the Ostend Manifesto?
- Polk offered $100 mil to buy Cuba -> Spain refused
- Pierce sent 3 diplomats to Ostend, Belgium to secretly negotiate purchase
- Leaked to press -> abolitionists got angry -> Pierce was forced to drop but tension remained (Period 5 timeline Pg. 3)
What was the Dred Scott decision?
- Dred Scott was ruled against, sending him back into slavery for the following reasons.
- Dred Scott has no right to sue because he is not citizen (slave)
- Slavery could not be excluded from any federal territory
- Declared Missouri Compromise as unconstitutional. (AMSCO pg. 256)
What was the Gadsden Purchase?
- Pierce added southern sections of New Mexico and Arizona (from Mexico) for a transcontinental railroad
- Bought for $10 million. (Period 5 Timeline Pg. 3)
What was the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty?
- It provided that neither nation (Britain or America) would attempt to take exclusive control of any future canal route in Central America. (AMSCO pg. 236)
What did Commodore Perry do?
He pressured Japan’s government to sign the Kanagawa Treaty opening two ports for US vessels to take on coal
What were the names of the people that helped slaves pass through the Underground Railroad?
"Conductors" (AMSCO pg. 250)
Where were the slaves transferred to?
Slaves passing through the Underground Railroad were transported to the North or Canada. (AMSCO pg. 250)
Why was the Underground Railroad established?
- To help escaped slaves reach freedom in the North or Canada
- Protect fugitive slaves from slave catchers (Fugitive Slave Law)(AMSCO pg 250)
What was the nickname given to Harriet Tubman?
Who is the leader of the Underground Railroad?
Harriet Tubman (AMSCO pg 250)
What major issue came with acquiring these new states from the Mexican War?
The acquisition of vast western lands renewed the sectional debate over the extension of slavery into the west.(AMSCO pg 235)
What was the proposal to solve the slavery question with America's newly gained territory?
- Wilmot Proviso (1846)
- Proposed bill that would ban slavery in any new territories acquired from Mex.
- Defeated in the senate 2x
- 1st round in renewed sectional debate (AMSCO pg 234)
What is the idea that people in a territory should decide if it is free or slave?
Popular sovereignty/squatter sovereignty (AMSCO pg 248)
What was the most controversial part of the Compromise of 1850?
Fugitive Slave Law and the provison for popular sovereignty (timeline pg 2)
Who came up with the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
Senator Stephen A. Douglas (pg 252)
What political party collapsed after 1854?
Whig campaign ignored slavery, could not hold sectional issues in check, party factions fell to infighting (AMSCO 244-245).
What were greenbacks?
A new currency created during the CIvil War. (first national currency) The government issued $430 million worth of greenbacks, leading to large amounts of inflation. (AMSCO 2016, pg 280)
What is nativism?
Nativism refers to the policy which protects the interests of native-born citizens against those of immigrants
- Nativists formed the Know-Nothing party(AMSCO 2016, pg 176)
What was the main platform of the Know-Nothing party?
Opposition to Catholics and immigrants (pg. 254)
Which religion did the Know Nothings particularly hate?
Catholics (pg. 254)
The Republican Party was a coalition of what 4 groups?
Free-Soilers, antislavery Whigs, Democrats, and abolitionists (AMSCO 246).
What happened between Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner?
- Sumner verbally attacked Andrew Butler and Brooks got mad and caned him
- Sumner never recovers (pg 254)
Who was the Chief Justice in the Dred Scott decision?
Chief Justice Roger Taney (pg 256)
What did the Dred Scott decision declare about the Missouri Compromise?
- Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional - All parts of the western territory was open to slavery, regardless of the Missouri Compromise (AMSCO 249).
What is the name of the pro-slavery constitution of Kansas?
Lecompton constitution (AMSCO, pg. 255)
What abolitionist raided the weapons arsenal at Harpers Ferry in 1859?
John Brown (AMSCO, pg. 257).
Why did the raid at Harpers Ferry fail?
Impractical plan, expected slaves to rise and revolt (AMSCO 251).
What was the significance of Uncle Tom's Cabin?
- The significance of Uncle Tom's Cabin was to highlight the injustices of slavery.
- Moved the North to believe that all slave owners were cruel and inhuman (Page 250 AMSCO)
What was the Crittenden Compromise?
A failed compromise for slavery boundary to be at the 36'30 line even with the new western lands. (AMSCO 2016, pg. 260)
What was Lincoln intending to do when he sent ships to Fort Sumter? (?)
- Replenish the garrison's food supplies.
- Gave the South the option to hold out the fort or open fire.
- War begins and North's nationalism swells (AMSCO 2016, pg 269)
What year did South Carolina secede?
1860 (AMSCO pg 259)
What year did the Civil War begin?
Civil War began in 1861 and ended in 1865 (Page 268 AMSCO)
Why did the South have such a financial hardship during the war?
- The Union (North) controlled a large majority of factories, railroads, and farmland.
- The Confederate (South) had to rely on cotton sales and foreign help. (AMSCO 2016, pg 270)
What was the Trent Affair?
- A Union warship stopped a British steamer named the Trent, removed Confederate diplomats James Mason and John Slidell and brought them to the United States as prisoners of war
- British threatened war over incident unless both diplomats were released
- Lincoln gave into British demands Confederate still not recognized by Britain or France.(AMSCO pg 274)
Why didn't any foreign country recognize the Confederacy?
- The United States prevented the Confederacy from gaining recognition
- Charles Francis Adams persuaded Britain to not sell warships to avoid risking war with the US - The Trent Affair threatened a war against the US and British didn't want to go to war with them(AMSCO pg 274)
Which side had more resources for the war?
Union (North) because of the acceleration of industrialization and modernization (AMSCO pg 268)
Who won the first battle of the Civil War?
First Battle of Bull Run - Confederates (AMSCO pg 271)
Who was the commanding general for the South?
Robert E. Lee. (AMSCO 2016, pg 272)
What was the name of Lincoln's plan to strangle the South economically?
Anaconda Plan (AMSCO pg 271)
Who was the Vice President of the Confederacy?
Alexander H. Stephens (AMSCO pg 271)
Who was the winning general at the battle of Antietam?
Union general George B McClellan (AMSCO 273)
Who was the Union Admiral that steamed into New Orleans in April 1862?
David Farragut (AMSCO pg 274)
What did the 2nd Confiscation Act do?
- Freed persons enslaved by anyone engaged in rebellion (Confederate's slaves) against the United States,
- Empowered the president to use freed slaves in the Union army in any capacity, including battle(AMSCO pg 275)
Who was the Secretary of State during Lincoln's administration?
William Seward (AMSCO pg 278)
What did the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation warn?
The Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation warned that if the Confederate States did not rejoin the Union by January 1, 1863, then all slaves in rebellious states would be free. (Archives.gov)
What year did slavery come to an end in the entire Western Hemisphere?
1865 after the adoption of the 13th Amendment (AMSCO pg 282)
Who was freed by the Emancipation Proclamation?
All enslaved people in the states then at war (Confederates) with the United States (AMSCO pg 275)
The Supreme Court in the case Ex Parte Milligan declared what?
- Supreme Court ruled that the government had acted improperly in Indiana where, during the war, certain civilians had been subject to a military trial
- Court declared that such procedures could be used only when regular civilian courts were unavailable. (AMSCO pg 279).
How many acres of land did the Homestead Act offer for free to settlers in the West?
160 acres (AMSCO page 281)
What act helped the states in establishing "agricultural and mechanic colleges?"
The Morrill Land Grant Act helped establish agricultural and mechanical colleges. (Amsco page 281)
Who was the president of the Confederate States of America?
Jefferson Finis Davis (AMSCO page 270)
What was the importance of Gettysburg?
Lee was unable to get any foreign aid and also unable to get the Union to agree to peace. because he failed to destroy the Union army or capture a major Northern city (AMSCO 2020 pg 277).
What was the importance of Vicksburg?
- Vicksburg was important because it gave the Union access to the Mississippi River and the Confederates finally surrendered the city on July 4,
- This cut off Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas from the rest of the Confederate (AMSCO 2020 pg 277).
What is scorched earth policy?
Scorched earth policy is a military strategy of burning or destroying crops/other resources that may be of use to an invading enemy force.
What did Republicans label those northerners who were opposed to the war?
What was the largest battle ever fought in the North American continent?
Battle of Gettysburg (AMSCO 277)
Who was the Democratic candidate for President in 1864?
General George McClellan (AMSCO 278)
When did Congress approve the Thirteenth Amendment?
December 1865 (AMSCO 276)
Where did Lee surrender?
Appomattox Court House (AMSCO, 278)
What was the significance of the Monitor vs. Merrimack battle?
- The Monitor, the Union's ironclad ship, stopped the Merrimack, the Confederate's ironclad ship, from challenging the US naval blockade of Confederate ports (AMSCO, 273)
- This battle was a turning point in naval warfare as wooden ships were being replaced by stronger, ironclad ships (AMSCO, 273)
Who were the Generals that Lincoln went through before settling on Grant?
Winfield Scott, George B. McClellan, John Pope, Ambrose Burnside (AMSCO pg 271-272) (?)
How did Lincoln expand executive power?
Called for 75,000 volunteers to put own the "insurrection" in the Confederacy Authorized spending for a war Suspended privilege of the writ of habeas corpus (AMSCO pg 269)
What is habeas corpus? What did Abraham Lincoln suspend during the Civil War?
- Habeas corpus is a right in the Constitution that says that a prisoner has to be brought before a court in order to determine if their imprisonment or detention is lawful. (Cornell Law School)
- Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus during the Civil War. (AMSCO, 313)
What was the Massachusetts 54th Regiment?
One of the all African American units in the Union army. (AMSCO, 314)
Why did Lincoln come to Gettysburg?
To dedicate a national military cemetery to the Union soldiers who fell at the Battle of Gettysburg.
To deliver his speech known as The Gettysburg Address(AMSCO pg 280)
Where was President Lincoln mortally wounded at?
Lincoln was fatally shot in Ford's Theatre in Washington while attending a show (AMSCO 278)
Who shot President Lincoln?
John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer (AMSCO 278)
What day did President Lincoln die?
April 15, 1865 (loc.gov)
What pro-southern actor killed Abraham Lincoln on the night of April 14, 1865?
John Wilkes Booth, an embittered actor and Confederate sympathizer, shot and killed the president on the night of April 14, 1865 (AMSCO 278)
What were the two ships involved in an 1862 sea battle?
The Monitor and the Merrimac were two ships involved in an 1862 sea battle (AMSCO 273)
What year was the Battle of Antietam?
1862 (AMSCO pg 272)
What year was the Emancipation Proclamation issued?
1863 (AMSCO pg 276)
What city had draft riots in 1863?
New York City(AMSCO 2022, pg. 315)
When was the first nationwide draft in the North?
1863 - Conscription Act - Made all men aged 20 to 45 liable for military service (AMSCO 2022, pg 315)
What was the name given to men who paid a fee to get out of the draft in the Civil War?
They were called ”principals” ((AMSCO 2022, pg. 315) (?)
What major city saw anti-draft riots because of the unequal number of lower class men being drafted?
- In July 1863, protests against the draft in New York City quickly turned into a riot against the city's Black residents.
- About 17 people were killed before federal troops and a temporary suspension of the draft restored order
What general marched to the sea in 1864?
- **General William Tecumseh Sherman (this fully answers the question)
- Pioneer of the tactics of total war **Purpose was to break the spirit of the Confederacy and destroy its will to fight