American Nation II Chapter 18-19 (Gilded Age & Growth of Cities)

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25 million
number of immigrants who came to the US between 1850 and 1920
British, Irish, and German
immigrant groups that were the most common during the first wave of immigration
southern/eastern European (Italian, Russian, etc.)
immigrant groups that were the most common during the second wave of immigration
The New Colossus
poem written to help raise money to build the pedestal for the Statue of Liberty
Ellis Island
immigration processing center that opened in New York Harbor in 1892
social segregation
term for the informal/unintentional division of neighborhoods based on income or ethnicity
a distinct neighborhood that forms in a city based on the common characteristics of its inhabitants (such as race or culture)
How the Other Half Lives
book published by photojournalist Jacob Riis that was designed to show wealthy Americans how wide the gap was between rich and poor in the US
year of the worst economic depression the US had seen up to that point
the term for small factory rooms filled with many workers
12 hours
typical length of a workday for wageworkers during the 19th century
term for professional, office, or administrative jobs that developed in the 19th century
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
nationwide strike that began when the B&O Railroad cut wages and raised dividends at the same time; one of the first major steps toward labor organization in the US
Knights of Labor
first mass organization of the U.S. working class; began as a secret society; designed to bridge gaps between common wageworkers & master craftsmen, men & women, race, etc.
American Federation of Labor
organization that coordinated the activities of craft unions throughout the U.S.; focused on workplace issues like wages & working conditions
Samuel Gompers
founded the American Federation of Labor
Haymarket Riot
rally called to protest the killing of strikers by the Chicago police; bomb was thrown into the police, resulting ultimately in several deaths; turned sentiment against labor unions
May Day rally
nationwide general strike organized in support of the 8-hour workday
William "Boss" Tweed
leader of the Tammany Hall political machine & most notorious city boss of the period
political machine
highly organized political party designed to win elections & reward supporters
Tammany Hall
Democratic political machine in New York City that was the most famous political machine
World's Columbian Exposition
largest world's fair in U.S. history held in 1893; held in Chicago
White City
nickname for the fairgound of the Chicago World's Fair
13th Amendment
amendment that abolished slavery
14th Amendment
amendment that established the citizenship process, due process and equal protection for all citizens
15th Amendment
amendment that established universal male suffrage
term for buying/selling stocks aggressively; risky investments
first big business in the US
an economic system based on private ownership of the means of production & their operation for profit (emphasis on competition)
industrial capitalism
system in which economic power is dominated by industrialists operating as individuals
finance capitalism
system in which investment is sponsored by banks & bankers (power is held by financial institutions rather than individual capitalists)
"to leave alone," capitalism free from government regulation
the merging of existing companies into a large corporation
Andrew Carnegie
investor/philanthropist who built the biggest steel business in the world during the Gilded Age
vertical integration
strategy where a company controls every aspect of the business
John D. Rockefeller
oil tycoon who popularized the use of the trust as a business structure
representatives of a company (trustees) hold stock in other companies & essentially create a monopoly
horizontal integration
strategy where one person/company controls all of one kind of business
Standard Oil
Company which controlled 90% of the oil business by 1890
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone
Thomas Edison
invented the phonograph, motion picture camera, incandescent light bulb filament
Robber Barons
negative term often used to describe wealthy businessmen who controlled the largest industries in the US during the Gilded Age
JP Morgan
leader in finance capitalism & prominent banker during the Gilded Age
Charles Darwin's biological theory that the process of evolution is determined by natural selection (adaptation to environment)
Social Darwinism
the application of the idea of natural selection to the economic/social world
spoils system
system in which supporters of winning political candidates were rewarded with government jobs
Jim Crow laws
laws that established legalized segregation in the South
depriving someone or a group of people of the right to vote
informal & unauthorized executions, frequently by a mob; usually racially motivated
Ida B. Wells
leader of the antilynching movement
Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton
women who founded the National Woman Suffrage Association (1869)
temperance movement
movement to end drunkenness in the US
Women's Christian Temperance Union
organization founded to protest against alcohol/drunkenness in the US
Frances Willard
radical president of the WCTU
faction of the Republican Party during the Gilded Age that supported the patronage system
faction of the Republican Party during the Gilded Age that was less openly corrupt
faction of the Republican Party during the Gilded Age that reformers who advocated against the spoils system and in favor of civil service reform
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that established the Civil Service Commission, put jobs under merit system with examinations required, and made it illegal for federal employees to contribute to campaigns
Interstate Commerce Act
first federal law regulating railroads; little enforcement power
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 law that outlawed trusts, said businesses couldn't enter agreements to restrict competition
protective tariff
a tax on imported goods designed to stimulate American industry
free silver
the idea that the government should buy silver & mint silver currency (instead of only gold)
Greenback Labor Party
political party that didn't want paper money to be tied to the gold supply
gold standard
system in which the value of currency was linked directly to gold