Psychology Study Guide Exam 1

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45 Terms
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the scientific study of human and animal behaviors and mental processes and all the factors that influence them
What are Anicent Greece traditions?
Plato's quest for perfect knowledge rooted in eternal forms. Aristotle's emphasized virtue, creating formal logic, and that knowledge comes from experience
What are African traditions?
The Shaman : connects to the power of the supernatural world, harnesses the power to heal, counsel, and communicate with the the spiritual world, uses natural and spiritual remedies for people's struggles
What are Asian traditions?
Indian yoga : disciplines the mind and body and mind align with each other Buddhism : explores consciousness, deepens awareness, and recognizes cause-effect relationship
What are Judeo-Christian traditions?
people are created in God's image and likeness, people can be redeemed, and people have the capacity to practice virtues and engage in rational thought
What was Rene Descartes ideology?
sensations and behaviors comes from nervous system. Mind-body connection
What are scientific traditions?
periodic table : elements of the natural world (natural patterns help us understand people) Charles Darwin : the process of survival and adaptation
cerebral cortex
-outer layer of the brain, largest and most developed part of the brain -responsible for all our highest level cognitive and intellectual abilities (thought, language, emotions, and consciousness)
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the limbic system
-underneath the cerebral cortex and above the brainstem -allows us to experience and control our emotions, linked to smell, motivation, memory, and sensory systems
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the brain stem
-located near the bottom of the brain -passes information from brain to body and body to brain; regulates heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, sleep, consciousness, body temp, and vomiting reflex
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how do we take all of the complexities of the human mind and reduce them to their most basic elements?
how do mental processes help us to live and respond effectively in our daily lives? (pratcical application)
powerful unconscious forces produce our observable behaviors and symptoms outside of our awareness and control
learning theories/behaviorism
the environment produces behavior through associations, rewards/punishment, and modeling
biological models
explains all aspects of human behavior in terms of the nervous system, brains structure and functioning, genetic factors, and adaptions that allow us to survive and reproduce
What are clinical examples of biological models?
ADHD, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder
humanistic theory
an outlook or system of thought that focuses on human beings rather than supernatural or divine insight
cognitive theory
a learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes
psychoanalysis strengths
focuses on developmental considerations and gains insight into current state of mind
psychoanalysis weaknesses
focuses on childhood experiences and difficult to measure or quantify
behaviorism strengths
allows learner to focus on one goal, real life application, and defines behavior clearly
behaviorism weaknesses
often doesn't target the core issue, doesn't take emotions into account, can be considered immoral
humanism strengths
empathizes individual choice and responsibility
humanism weakness
difficult to maintain and concepts are too vague
cognitive psych strengths
effective for treating anxiety, bases principle on experiments, and helps is understand the processes of memory
cognitive psych weakness
doesn't allow for direct observations, not effective on all individual, overlooks other behavioral factors, and ignores possible causes that could have come from social environment or our biology
Psychology is a science seperate from _____ and philosophy
Who introduced the idea of dualism in the 17th century?
Rene Descartes
Rene Descartes said that the __ and __ interact eith each other
mind, body
Who opened the first psychology lab? When? Where?
Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 at University of Leipzig
When did psychology flourish in America?
mid to late 1800's
Structuralists wanted to break down mental proceses into their ___ parts
Functionalists believed that consciousness existed as a more ____ and changing process
The limbic system is a ____ that goes all throughout the brain
Limbic system is what we are feeling, for example anger, in other words our ___.
Cerebral cortex involves ___ ___ thinking
higher level
Brain stem is in charge of ____ processes
Behaviorism rose to dominance in the __ century
Ivan Pavlov did research on ___ led to his discovery of the classical conditioning process and he was from ___
dogs, Russia
Sigmund Frued was a ____ physician
SIgmund Frued studied the importance of the ____ mind
Carl ____ was an American psychologist who was one of the founders of the school of ____
Rogers, thought
Rogers believed strongly in the power of free ____ and self-___
will, determination
William James was an _____ psychologist
William James ideas served as the new school of thought called _____