Chemistry - Unit 2 Atomic Structure Test

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28 Terms
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atom/group atoms with the same atomic number (#of protons) but with different numbers of neutrons
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atom/ group of atoms w/ a + or - charge
a positively charged ion
a negatively charged ion
test your knowledge: an atom has 53 protons, 74 neutrons, and 54 electrons, what is the charge of this atom?
-1 charge
atomic mass
weighted average mass of atoms, protons + neutrons
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percent abundance
percentage amount of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element
Splits an atom into 2 or more smaller ones
Describe Democritus' Atom
- The atom is the smallest - There empty space between atoms - Atoms have no internal structure, completely solid
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What was Dalton's Atomic Theory?
Atoms of different elements have different size, mass, and properties.
What was JJ Thomson's Experiment?
Cathode Ray Experiment - An electric charge was passed through an empty tube where all the air was sucked out - The tube had a fluorescent screen placed in the back - The screen allowed the electricity beam to be seen as a dot - He then placed two oppositely charged electric coils inside the tube - This resulted in the charge being deflected from the negative coil, and, because like charges repel each other, the charge also proved to be negatively charged
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What did Thomson discover?
What is Thomson's atomic model called? What does it look like?
Plum Pudding Model - Sticky pudding: positively charged fluid that fills an atom - Plums: negatively charged electrons that are suspended in the fluid
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Thomson's model is okay, but what was wrong with it?
Atoms aren't filled with "positively charged fluid", and electrons aren't just floating around aimlessly like a bird
James Chadwick did stuff too ig. What subatomic particle did Chad discover?
neutrons ._.
Earnest Rutherford was earnest to find out more about these atom thingies. What was his experiment?
Gold Foil Experiment - Alpha particles fired at a piece of gold foil - Most of the alpha particles went straight through
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What did Rutherford's Experiment prove?
Atoms are mostly empty space
What flaws are there with Rutherford's Experiment?
Rutherford created the planetary model, which is incorrect, because electrons don't have a set circular orbit around the nucleus
Who created the Quantum/ Electron Cloud Model
Erwin Schrodinger
What did the Quantum Model discover?
That electrons exist in "clouds" of probability
Name each subatomic particle, their location in the atom, mass, and charge.
- Protons, found in the nucleus, positively charged - Neutrons, found in the nucleus, neutrally charged - Electrons, circling around the nucleus, negatively charged
What makes each element unique?
The number of protons
Determine the average atomic mass of U-235 0.720% and U-238 99.28%
The average atomic mass of this is 237.9784
Determine the % abundancy for element X with two isotopes X-56 and X-58 with an avg atomic mass of 57.34 grams.
X-56 = 33 X-58 = 67
Why are ions formed?
Ions are formed because atoms want to become more stable, therefore, gain or lose electrons.
How many electrons in P -3 ion?
There are 18 electrons
What is the charge on lead (Pb) with 78 electrons?
It is +4
What electron configuration do most ions form?
Most ions form the electron configuration of a noble gas