include a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
The experimental factor that is changed; is the variable whose effect is being studied.
The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.
Calculating total magnification
take ocular lens power (10x) times the objective lens power ex: 10 × hp (40)= 400
organelles in plant cells
organelles in animal cells
Plant cells lack
centrioles and lysosomes
Animal cells lack
cell wall and chloroplasts
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.
Parts of the cell membrane
phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, carbohydrates
model of the cell membrane in which the phospholipid bi-layer is between two layers of protein.
fluid mosaic model
model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
an attraction between molecules of different substances
the attraction between molecules of the same substance
the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid
What makes water polar?
there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms
a very large organic molecule composed of many smaller molecules
broken down to glucose to provide energy
energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
nutrients the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues
small molecules that join together to form more complex molecule
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
a chemical reaction in which two molecules covalent bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule
breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
proteins that speed up chemical reactions
the reactant on which an enzyme works
the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
systems that effect enzyme function are....
temperature, pH, and the concentration of substrate and enzyme
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes have no nucleus or membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotes have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Both can reproduce and respond to the environment
a biochemical test for the presence of sugars
chemical test for the presence of starch using a potassium iodide solution. A color change to purple/black indicates a positive result.
tests for proteins
Sudan Red Test (paper bag test)
tests for lipids
having a higher concentration of solute than another solution
having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution