Hist 106 Exam 1 Review TAMU (Lec 1-6)

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The Civil War
Fought over Slavery 750k-1M dead
Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation
Wartime only Slaves in Confederate states proclaimed free
13th Amendment
Slavery is now illegal
Freedmen's Bureau
A government agency that helped assimilate former slaves into society
America's focus after the Civil War
Lincoln after the Civil War
To welcome the South back into the Union; to reunite and move forward. Many disagreed John Wilkes Booth assassinates Lincoln
President Andrew Johnson
disinterested in former slaves; did the bare minimum
Confederate states after Civil War:
They could only rejoin Union if they ratified the 13 Amendment They created Black Codes (laws to ensure white dominance) -- African Americans could not vote, own weapons, drink alcohol, mix with whites, etc.
Klu Klux Klan
Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest Formed to maintain White Supremacy and safeguard southern Christian values
Radical Reconstruction
Republicans (Party of Lincoln) v Democrats (Party of Slavery) Radical Recon led by Thaddeus Stevens (R)
Civil Rights Act
(1866) anyone born in US was a citizen
14th Amendment
right to Due Process; discrimination on race prohibited the "male" right to vote (equal citizenship to former slaves)
Reconstruction Act
the South put under military occupation to protect former slaves Must ratify 14th Amendment & end Black codes in order for military to leave They did, but AA persecution worsened, so military didn't leave
First president every impeached (charged with a crime)
Andrew Johnson
African American Political Gains
First Senator elected in Mississippi = Hiram Revels & Blanche Bruce First Lt. Governor elected in Louisiana = P.B.S Pinchback
African American Religion
Baptist = pro-slavery beliefs
1868 Presidential Election
Ulysses S. Grant (R) shared Lincoln's vision for African Americans African American votes win him the Presidency Union army hunts down KKK = pushed underground but not eradicated
Matthew Gaines
Elected to Texas State Legislature Major push for public education Still segregated though
Morrill Act
States could apply for land for universities/educational institutions Land was taken from Native Americans Universities were segregated (Texas A&M vs Prairie View A&M)
Women's Rights Individuals
Susan B Anthony Elizabeth Cady Stanton
American Equal Rights Association Merged from National Women's Rights Convention & American Anti-Slavery Society
15th Amendment
the right to vote regardless of race (but not gender)
AERA dissolves
Women & AA movements clashed; which was more important? Anthony/Stanton form the National Women's Suffrage Association Separated women's rights & AA advocacy; limited to white women
Limits to Reconstruction
Southern economy in ruins Freedmen's Bureau gave Confederate lands to freedmen = unconstitutional Former slaves could not obtain land, so were limited to sharecropping system, thus remaining obligated to white landowners and staying in poverty
Sharecropping System
A landlord gives a tenant a portion of land to sell crops from Used initially for former slaves who had to work on white plantations to make income
End of Reconstruction
Southern military occupation had to end. Reconstruction was no longer popular.
1876 Presidential Election
Rutherford B Hayes (R) v Samuel Tilden (D) Both sides claimed victory Hayes supposedly one by one point
Compromise of 1877
The Democrats would give the Republicans the presidency if they military left the south and promised not to interfere in state matters anymore Hayes/Reps agree = abandoning former slaves in the South Makes way for Jim Crow Segregation
Westward Expansion (pre-Civil War)
Didn't happen because of slavery issues (free/slave states) 1840s -- TX annexed, NM, AZ, CA taken from Mexico
Drivers of Westward Expansion
Slavery (new territory) Resources (minerals, mines) Rapid Industrialization (railroad expansions)
Westward Expansion Consequences
Expeditions destructive: 15M bison dropped to a few hundred in 30 years) Native Americans = expansion is encroachment! Americas = expansion is wealth extraction and adventure!
The Mormons
Church of the Latter Day Saints of Jesus Christ Founded by Joseph Smith in NY "God's Chosen People" A new Jerusalem in America Mormon "Exceptionalism" Plural Marriage condemned by other denominations (immoral) Divided on Slavery Not received well --- called blasphemous & persecuted = fled West
The Mormons -- Conflict
Joseph Smith killed in Nauvoo, IL (was criticized, declared martial law, ordered newspaper burned down, mob attacked him in response) Brigham Young became leader; moved to Utah Mini Mormon War: Young though church would decide leaders/governors, not Utah citizens. Brief war breaks out over this & plural marriage = ends with Popular Sovereignty & Young removed. the Quid Pro Quo: plural marriage legal until 1909 for legal reasons
Westward Expansion (Post-Civil War)
Land Rush: Kansas population 30k -- 500k + Texas population 250k -- 2M Everyone went West BUT it was Native American land!
The Homestead Act
any male could apply for 160 acres of land West of the Mississippi & it would become their afters 5 years
Indian Removal Policy
Get the Native Americans to move through treaties (although it was bad land) Native American's who didn't move = intimidated and harassed until they did US Army eventually used violence to drive them out Policy deeply unpopular = resulted in the Indian Wars
Dakota Sioux War 1862
Dakota Sioux attacked Minnesota settlers 38 Sioux sentenced to death Settlers demanded Indians be forced onto "Reservations"
Sand Creek Massacre
Colorado Cheyenne massacred Native Americans while their leader was away negotiating a peace treaty
Board of Indian Commissioners
Established by President Grant Goal = christianize Native Americans & lift up inferior race (peaceful coercion) No NA's on the board; only Protestants who wanted Christian assimilation NA culture/religion different though -- Board's goal failed = violent coercion
Federal Ultimatum 1874
Any tribes who did not move to Reservations were "hostile" and would be hunted down.
Comanche Red River War
Comanche defeated and forced onto Reservations in OK
Red Cloud's War (Sioux)
A victory for NA Great Sioux Reservation created
The Great Sioux War & Battle of Little Bighorn 1876
Sitting Bull had visions of victory against the US... LBH: 2500 Sioux v 700 US Cavalry Leader George Custer didn't think they needed reinforcements (wrong) -- Romanticized like the Alamo George Custer: controversial, egomaniac, believed NAs were inferior, overly confident
Final Acceptance of Reservations
US Army ruthlessly hunted down Sitting Bull & hostile NA tribes (Navajo, Nez Perce, Comanche, Mahoawk) = all forced onto Reservations
Dawes Allotment Act
basically the Homestead Act for NAs It individualized tribes and ruined tribal dependence.
Ghost Dance
Prophet Wovoka claimed Indian Messiah created new afterlife & if NAs lived peacefully in this life, they would earn this afterlife The Ghost Dance became a commonplace ritual amongst the tribes US Gov worried about the NAs "losing the way" & killing white people = created laws banning the dance & forced Christian conversions "Kill the Indian, but save the man."
Wounded Knee
Sitting Bull accidentally killed. Ghost Dancers fled, but were caught; weapon goes off, 290 NAs killed (most women & children) Some Americans celebrated; total extermination of Indians = safety Some said wanted military campaign to end & leave the Ghost Dancers alone. NAs endured reservations believing they would have a better life after death.
The First Rodeo
In Peco, TX 1883 Settled disputes -- not entertainment Redefined American rural masculinity - skill & social standing Was eventually capitalized on
Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show
Stereotyped Indians, bank robbers, cowboys, and damsels in distress Highly popular - last chance to see "authentic" Indian culture Wild West Mythology strengthened by books and movies Many believed it was real; it wasn' was escapism!
The Turner Thesis
Frederick Jackson Turner 1893 Argued that the Frontier fundamentally shaped the American identity Conquering the Frontier made Americans uniquely tough, resilient, determined, and democratic. But it was a safety valve-the low educated and criminals were actually making the frontier while everyone else was industrializing the east Westward expansion now = "civilization"
Bessemer Process
Combined iron & carbon = cheap but strong steel Revolutionizes the steel industry; kicked off 2nd industrial revolution
Louis Pasteur
Cholera/rabies vaccine
Henri Toussaint
anthrax vaccines
Robert Koch
tuberculosis treatments
combats harmful bacteria in food so it lasts longer
Effects of New Developments
Deaths from disease decrease Food quality, lifespans, and populations increase
Werner von Siemens
electrical generator 1967 machines became smaller/complex sewing machines, irons, refrigerators London Underground, Paris Metro, New York Subway
Carl Benz
first working automobile 1885
Rudolf Diesel
first diesel engine 1897 petroleum industry increases as a result
Henry Ford
assembly line process 1903
John Dunlap
rubber tire production 1887 the Michelin Company 1990 Michelin Travel Guides (railroads, automobiles, travel!)
Battle of Hampton Roads
1862, ironclads used changed the face of naval warfare forever
Naval Advancements
1870s: ironclads (coastal going, small) 1880s: pre-deadnoughts/armored cruisers (ocean going, cannons on side) 1892: US Navy first pre-dreadnought USS Texas 1906: HMS Dreadnought (first dreadnought with cannons in rotating turrets) 1896: Holland IV, first submarine
Thomas Edison
Electrical Generators and the Light Bulb 1879 Seen as overly ambitious; promised inventions every ten days & bigger projects every six months Electricity changed everything; buildings got taller, railroads, factories operate 24 hours a day
Alexander Graham Bell
the Telephone 1876 - Bell Telephone Company (AT&T today) Initially offered to sell idea to West Union for 100k but no one believed in it
Guglielmo Marconi
the "Wireless" (the Radio) Radio waves would travel further if antennas were taller (Eiffel Tower)
Kodak Eastman
the Box Brownies (the Camera) 1888 Tourism had increased with postcards → camera makes it easier!
29,000 miles of track in 1860 163,562 miles of track in 1890 Carriages, engines, and steel tracks became easier to produce
Scientific Management
Frederick Taylor (Taylorism) Skilled laborers in short supply - can't meet demand! Broke down the process into stages with assembly line Even unskilled workers can do it More efficient, faster production, cheaper labor costs (lower wages) Henry Ford adopted Taylorism for car manufacturing
Pre-Civil War: German and Irish Post-Civil War: Italians, Polish, Eastern Europeans
How did immigrants assimilate and how did Americans accommodate it?
Many immigrants banded together in American cities, retaining culture through Immigrant Solidarity - little integrated parts of cities (Little Italy, Chinatown, French Quarter) A renounced effort to retain culture even if they are willing to change social, economic, and political ways to align with America
Consequences of Immigration & Urbanization
Overcrowding, crime, disease - but the industrial revolution created city parks, schools, and clean drinking water! American cities got bigger! (800% from 1870-1900) 18 million immigrants came to US from 1870-1900 Increase in Catholicism Suburbs: changed geography of US by spreading further and further
National Womens' Suffrage Association
popular in cities
Women's Temperance Movement
alcohol was the source of evil and immorality, and needed to be banned
Early Feminist Movements
Increased women's political advocacy: public health, hygiene, schools, drinking water, criticizing political corruption "Feminism" seen as undermining Masculinity and Christian gender roles
Charlotte Perkins Gilman 1982
The Yellow Newspaper Women labeled "clinically insane" if they produced any feminist tendencies, opinions, or showed any intelligence Argued men should have tried harder to suppress women's opinions = Muscular Christianity Brought about the YMCA, Boy Scouts, "Bodybuilding"
New South Boosters
advocates of investment in the south -- steel, iron, tobacco, textiles, shipbuilding all increased
The "New" South
industrialization invigorated the South; shake off the past of slavery Post-Civil War -- the South did everything they could to withhold equality from African Americans...the new south looked a lot like the old one
Consequences of Compromise of 1877
Jim Crow Segregation The "Lost Cause" Mythology Lynching
The "Lost Cause" Movement
American Civil War = not about slavery Slaves weren't mistreated, but were happy. Civil War = a noble lost cause defense of Southern culture and honor statues commissioned across the south- centered on Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, Nathan Bedford Forrest Ladies Memorial Associations: memorialized Confederate dead & veterans (heroes) Many LMAs merged in 1894 as the Daughters of the American Confederacy
Jim Crow Disenfranchisement
The South wanted the disenfranchisement (prevent or take away) votes of African Americans But due to the 14th & 15th amendment = AAs right to vote cannot be taken away
Three methods AA voting was made difficult in the South
Poll Tax: tax on a vote Applied to anyone whose grandfathers were not eligible to vote before the Civil War Problem: most grandfathers were slaves, AAs too poor to pay tax anyway Understanding Clauses & Literacy Tests: arbitrary; white = easy questions and blacks = impossible questions White Primary: only White candidates on the ballot so AAs didn't bother voting
Louisiana voting for AAs
Pre-1877: 94% 1890: 6%
Used to terrorize AAs in the South & keep them from challenging Jim Crow Seg. Frequent punishment for any sexual interaction with a White woman or muder of white man 1880-1950 = ~5,000 lynchings in the US
The Lynching of Sam Hose, 1899
Killed employer in fight over time off - claimed self defense (but he fled the scene) False rumors that he sexually assaulted the employers wife and child Mob stormed the jail and lynched Hose; bones sold as souviners An excuse to clamp down even further on the AA community
The "Waco Horror" 1916
Jesse Washington, 17-year-old: murdered Elizabeth Fryer (white) & rumors of rape Lynching pre-planned (although illegal) 15,000 traveled to watch Guilty verdict - Washington lynched outside Waco City Hall
1823 Monroe Doctrine
America opposed European colonization in the Western Hemisphere
American Exceptionalism
1823 John Winthrop's 1630 Sermon - "City upon a Hill" US was a Christian Nation on God's Chosen Path US is better than everyone & had a sacred duty to be the best
Manifest Destiny
1845 John O' Sullivan (Dem Admin of James K Polk) → American Christianity should spread (and dominate) across the land Favored Manifest Destiny to justify expansion and slavery 1845 Republic of Texas annexed (slavery reintroduced) 1846 Oregon annexed Manifest Destiny for Protestant Whites only
Mexican-American War 1846
Territory between Mexico & American disputed Polk offered to buy territory from MX for a pitiful price Mex Pres. Santa Anna sent guards to border to protect MX Polk sent his men too, hoping MX would fire so they could invade and take the territory by force That's exactly what happened → ensue the Mexican-American War War supported by those wanting expansion MX not annexed because of the Catholic population & non-White race Treaty of Guadelpue Hidalgo: Polk gets CA, NV, NM, AZ, CO, OK, KS, WY
William McKinley
1866 → William McKinley wins Presidency (Republican) Believer in trade, commerce, Big Business; expansion will boost trade/business
McKinley Expansion - Hawaii
1840s, settlers arrived (Manifest Destiny) Hawaiian Monarchy overthrown with "Bayonet Constitution" - replaced with president; only whites could vote 1893 Republic of Hawaii 1897 McKinley annexes Hawaii for trade resources
McKinley Expansion - China
European powers competing for China Trade US Open Door Policy: all powers should be allowed to trade with China Boxer Rebellion: McKinley sends troops to China to fight Boxers (Chinese movement resisting encroachment of outsiders and foreign business)
Origins of the Spanish-American War 1898
Cuban War of Independence Yellow Journalism USS Maine explosion The De Lome Letter
Cuban War of Independence
Cubans fighting Spanish occupation Spanish General Valeriano Wylar sent to fight Cuban rebels → brutal + concentration camps Spanish actions in Cuba violated the Monroe Doctrine BUT the American military was tiny...
Yellow Journalism
Media competition between William Randolph Heart's New York Journal & Joseph Pulitzer's New York World Sensational headlines about Spanish atrocities & called for war with Spain
USS Maine Explosion
USS Maine sent to Havana: explosion kills 261 sailors Yellow Journalism blamed Spain → 1974, discovered it was an accident
The De Lome Letter
Spanish Ambassador called McKinley "Weak" McKinley declares war on Spain
Fighting the Spanish-American War
McKinley needed an army very quickly - called for 249k volunteers He hoped the war would unite the North & South after the Civil War
Smoked Yankees
AAs volunteered hoping to gain equality → caused tension in the South
Rise of Theodore, "Teddy," Roosevelt
Forms his own regiment = the Rough Riders (20k applied to join) Became famous at the Battle of San Juan Hill Named a national hero
Yellow Fever
Kills more Americans than fighting (2k vs 400) Dr. Walter Reed and Carlos Finlay (Cuban Epidemiologist): Yellow Fever → spread by mosquitoes Walter Reed Hospital in Washington D.C.
The Temptation for American Empire
US troops invade Puerto Rico + US Navy attacks the Philippines (to distract the Spanish) Spanish already surrounded by Filipinos fighting for Independence (Emilio Aguinaldo) (Americans had to decide whether they were there to help the Filipinos or replace Spanish as an occupier) Treaty of Paris: Spain offers Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the US to end the war.
Those in favor of the American Empire Republican Party: US needed to be the equal of European Powers McKinley & Roosevelt Businessmen: colonies good for trade Christian Evangelists: colonies can be Christianized & civilized Social Darwinism played a key role - the only alternative to survival of the fittest is survival of the unfittest. Rudyard Kipling's White Man's Burden: encouraged America to become an Empire "Burden" meaning white peoples duty to civilize/colonize/christianize those inferior - everyone else in the world
Those against the American Empire Democratic Party: an Empire is against the foundation of the US because we resisted an Empire ourselves (Great Britain) William Jennings Bryan, Populists The real motivation: colonies would bring immigration/cheap labor → bad for American workers! America becomes an Empire by one Senate vote.
The Philippine War
Started when America became an Empire and took control of the Philippines 3 years - 6k Americans/200k Filipinos died Filipinos wanted Independence - not granted until 1945
1900 Presidential Election
McKinley (R) vs Bryan (D) McKinley running mate = Teddy Roosevelt Sep. 6th, 1901: McKinley assassinated by Leon Czolgolz
Big Stick Diplomacy
Roosevelt -- use of American military power and power abroad to enhance economic prosperity
The Roosevelt Corollary
America had the right to militarily intervene in Latin America to "correct administrative or fiscal deficiencies" → to civilize/christianize Latin America
Roosevelt USING Big Stick Diplomacy
Occupies Venezuela & Dominican Republic Sets sights on Columbia (Panama Canal) -- Columbians resist. Roosevelts supports Panamanians (rebel group in Columbia) with money & weapons. Panama gains independence from Columbia = US gains control over the Panama Canal (almost complete & indefinitely)
Roosevelt & Naval Power
Battleships → America power Established two major naval bases: Pearl Harbor in Hawaii and Guantanamo Bay in Cuba The Great White Fleet: 16 battleships the size of aircraft carriers, all white, 14k sailors, sailed 43k nautical miles across the globe to showcase American military might
Alfred Thayer Mahan The Influence of Seapower on History
if you want an Empire, you need a strong Navy (uses British Empire as an example)
Americans wanted progress; written off as Populists 2.0.
Those highlighting inequalities in American system. Ida Tarbell: exposed oil industry. Upton Sinclair's the jungle: exposed meat industry. Lincoln Steffens: exposed industrialized American cities.
Emerged 1830s, Charles Fourier, France. Strong gov: care for citizens, control healthcare, regulate banks, progressive taxation. Rewarded for work! Socialists want to participate!!! reform from within.
1848, Karl Marx, Germany. Totalitarian gov: controls everything, gives only what IT wants. Work level irrelevant. Communists want revolution!!! overthrow for reform.
American Socialism
1901. Carries on populist platform. Led by Eugene v. Debs case. In 10 years, 1k win elections countrywide; had hundred-thousands of members. Feared by D+R, who began listening to muckrakers and considered reform.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
NYC, 1909 women's trade union protest work conditions. 500 women inside when fire broke-146 dead, 71 injured. demand for reform to create govt. regulations to protect workers.
First "Progressive" President
Theodore Roosevelt, 1901-1908. Saw self as bridge between labor + big business. Est. department of labor, commerce, and US forest service.
The Square Deal
Domestic policy during TR presidency.
Elkins Act (1903)
outlawed predatory business practices
Hepburn Act 1906
regulates railroad prices
Meat Inspection Act
regulates meat industry
Pure Food and Drug Act
Established the FDA
Sherman Antitrust Act 1890
Monopolies taken down if stifled trade.
1908 Presidential Election
Taft (R) vs Bryan (D) Teddy Roosevelt delivered square deal so Bryan loses third time.
Second "Progressive" President
William Howard Taft, 1908-1912. Continued trust-busting. 16th & 17th amendment
16th Amendment
Federal Income Tax
17 Amendment
Direct election of senators
Rise of Progressive Party
Roosevelt makes own party (progressive party-the bull moose). Promised more reforms, govt. health insurance, social welfare.
1912 Presidential Election
Taft (R) vs Roosevelt (P) vs Woodrow Wilson (D) P & R split vote; Wilson wins
Third "Progressive" President
Woodrow Wilson, 1912-1916. est. federal reserve bank: regulated all banks+currency in US.
3 Pillars of Reform (Wilson)
trust-busting, trade, banks
Clayton Antitrust Act
prevented big businessmen serving multiple company boards (creating monopolies)
Limits to Wilson's New Freedom platform
Refuses to outlaw child labor: govt. infringement in private labor. Segregates the Fed Gov -- AA not allowed fed jobs.
Progress for Women
Women's trade union league: working class. Women's christian temperance union: alcohol ban. National Women's Party: Alice Paul imprisoned, feminism protests.
Women's Suffrage
American Women's Suffrage Association: for white supremacy in Jim Crow south. Women's vote seen as threat to masculinity. Women's vote in WY, CO, UT, ID: frontier woman = man.
No Progress for AA
Jim Crow segregation worsened. Plessy v. Ferguson
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Plessy sat in white section on train; arrested SC claimed Jim Crow laws did not discriminate against him personally as he can still travel on trains 14th A: only states couldn't discriminate -- nothing about private companies SC ruled it not discriminatory = "separate but equal" rights provided In reality, Jim Crow South = Separate but Unequal
Booker Taliaferro Washington
Former slave The Atlanta Compromise (speech): African Americans would accept Jim Crow in return for educational and economic supports. First African American invited for dinner at the White House (Teddy Roosevelt) 1901 -- Uproar!!
Brownsville Affair
Brownsville, TX; locals upset with black soldiers who had weapons Roosevelt dishonorably discharges 167 African American soldiers. Booker T. Washington begged Roosevelt to go back on his decision, but Roosevelt refused
Springfield Race Riot
2 black men suspected of rape and murder in Springfield, IL 3 day race riot broke out over their attempted lynching -- mob of 5k attacked the African Americans in town 16 black people died and 2,000 African Americans forced out of the Hometown of Abraham Lincoln (not even in the Jim Crow South!)
W.E.B. DuBois
First African American to gain a PhD from Harvard. Called Washington "the Great Compromiser" Thought nothing short of Civil Rights was acceptable. 1909: DuBois and other prominent African Americans established the NAACP