Intro to Social Studies- Unit 2 Civics Review

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27 Terms
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The study of citizenship and one's government
The Social Compact
People give up some of their freedom in exchange for protection and security
What does the Magna Carta translate to?
The Great Charter
What is the Magna Carta?
A charter of liberty and political rights that were made out of King John's questionable ruling, forcing him to obey the law.
Responsibilities of a Citizen
something you SHOULD do
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
Thomas Jefferson
Duties of a Citizen
something you HAVE to do
Rights of a Citizen
something you CAN/ABLE to do
Voltaire's 5 Natural Rights
Reason, nature, the pursuit of happiness, progress, liberty
The Enlightenment (Scientific Revolution was before this)
The Age of Reason: they wanted to apply reason to all aspects of society, government, religion, economics, and education.
Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes believed people give up their rights to a strong ruler for law and order, humans are selfish and wicked, and that the "ruler needed total power" (absolute monarchy).
John Locke
John Locke believed in positive human nature, opposed absolute monarchy, and wanted self-government. He had three natural rights: Life, liberty, and property.
Voltaire believed in tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech. He targeted clergy, aristocrats, and the French government.
Divine Right of Kings
The kings are in charge because God chose them.
Baron de Montesquieu
He believed that Britain was the best governed country, had members of Parliament hold legislative power. (Separation of power) His ideas became the basis for the United States constitution.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
He believed that civilization corrupted people's natural goodness, and civilization forced everyone to obey unjust laws. "State of Nature"
He believed torture should never be used; laws existed to preserve social order. He influenced criminal law reformers in Europe and North America.
the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit
Absolute Monarchy
A government type where a sovereign head (e.g. a queen, king or emperor) rules without any opposition questioning their rule.
Democratic Republic
A body of citizens have the power/say but have a representative or officer.
Constitutional Monarchy
A government type where a sovereign head (e.g. a queen, king or emperor) rules with a basic set of principles where their responsibilities are written out in a law or custom.
A government where a group or ruler has absolute say/power.
Direct Democracy
People choosing and deciding everything together.
A government where a wealthy or powerful group has authority.
Absence of government authority; without law.
A government subject to religious authority.
A government or state ruled by an elite class, usually hereditary.