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APUSH Essay Test; Chapters 13-18

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The Election of 1824
The election had four main candidates, all republicans. They were John Quincy Adams (from NE), Henry Clay (from Kentucky/West), William H. Crawford (from Georgia/South), and Andrew Jackson (from Tennessee/West). At the time, there was not an organized party system and the election process was fuzzy. Jackson, who was popular after the Battle of New Orleans, won the popular vote but not the electoral vote. Since there was no clear winner, the House voted amongst the top three candidates. After the supposed "corrupt bargain," John Quincy Adams became president with Clay as his secretary of state
Spoils System
Policy of rewarding political supporters with public office, first widely employed at the federal level by Andrew Jackson. The practice was widely abused by unscrupulous office seekers, but it also helped cement party loyalty in the emerging two-party system.
Nullification Crisis
Showdown between President Andrew Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved by a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in 1833
Indian Removal Act
Ordered the removal of Indian Tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri. Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles. Jackson consoled his conflicting emotions over this act with the belief that NA could preserve their cultures out west; Jackson believed he had an obligation to "rescue" native races
The Bank Battle/Pet Banks
Battle between President Andrew Jackson and Congressional supporters of the Bank of the United States over the bank's renewal in 1832. Henry Clay had tried to renew the bank's charter 4 years early to undermine Jackson's presidency; the Bank was a heated issue. Many disliked the institution: it had considerable sway over the national economy, it was not accountable to the people, and it foreclosed on many western properties in favor of the east. Jackson ultimately vetoed the Bank Bill, arguing that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers. Popular term for pro-Jackson state banks that received the bulk of federal deposits when Andrew Jackson moved to dismantle the Bank of the United States in 1833.
Texas overall
Issues w/ Mexico: Texas pioneers refused to assimilate to Mexican culture and did not practice Catholicism. Settlers resented the Mexican government and military presence in the region and interference with local rights, immigration, and slavery (Mexico had emancipated its slaves, Texans had not). annexation: Mexicans believed that the US had an obligation to stay neutral in Texas' independence movement, but Americans favored Texas nonetheless. However, northerners opposed its annexation because of slavery, believing the campaign to make Texas a state was in fact a conspiracy to expand the institution. President Tyler later annexed it as the 28th state, mexicans became mad because they thought that the US had "stolen" it from them
Denmark Vesey
Led an aborted slave rebellion in Charleston in 1822, fueling Southern fears about government intervention with slavery. He was betrayed by informants and hung from the gallows.
Irish Immigrants
Irish immigrants came to the US primarily after the 1840s potato famine and settled in larger seaport cities like NY and Boston. They were poor, illiterate, and extremely Catholic. Irish immigrants opposed abolition and had race riots with African Americans; the Irish themselves were treated as inferior and "a social menace" by established Americans and nativists.
Know-Nothing Party
Nativist political party, also known as the American party, which emerged in response to an influx of immigrants, particularly Irish Catholics.
German Immigrants
Following crop failure and the collapse of the 1848 democratic revolution, German immigrants came to the American Middle West (notably Wisconsin.) These people were educated, promoted art and music, and lived in "compact colonies" away from their American neighbors. Although they were regarded with suspicion because of their isolationist tendencies, German Immigrants influenced American culture through things like the Christmas tree and the conestoga wagon.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
Massachusetts Supreme Court decision that strengthened the labor movement by upholding the legality of unions. the common-law doctrine of criminal conspiracy did not apply to labour unions.
Factory Girls/ Lowell Mill Girls
Young women employed in the growing factories of the early nineteenth century, they labored long hours in difficult conditions, living in socially new conditions away from farms and families.
Cult of Domesticity
Pervasive nineteenth century cultural creed that venerated the domestic role of women. It gave married women greater authority to shape home life but limited opportunities outside the domestic sphere.
Erie Canal
New York state canal that linked Lake Erie to the Hudson River. It dramatically lowered shipping costs, fueling an economic boom in upstate New York and increasing the profitability of farming in the Old Northwest.
Transportation Revolution
Term referring to a series of nineteenth century transportation innovationsā€”turnpikes, steamboats, canals, and railroadsā€”that linked local and regional markets, creating a national economy.
Market Revolution
Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century transformation from a disaggregated, subsistence economy to a national commercial and industrial network.
Interchangeable Parts
Identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
Second Great Awakening
Religious revival characterized by emotional mass "camp meetings" and widespread conversion. Brought about a democratization of religion as a multiplicity of denominations vied for members. It gave way to various reform movements, most of which were spearheaded by women: temperance, prison and institutional reform, women's suffrage, abolition, etc. The movement also further seperated classes, regions, and religions; its religious secession would foreshadow the Civil War.
Education Reformation
Goals: Reformers addressed overcrowding, poorly-trained and poorly-paid teachers, limited curriculum, and irregular schedules in American tax-supported public schools. In higher education, reformers wanted to address the lack of schooling for women. Key figures: Horace Mann (secretary on the MA Board of Education; promoted more schools, longer school days, expanded curriculum) Noah Webster (Published a dictionary that standardized the American language and textbooks that were used throughout American schools) William Holmes McGuffey (Published McGuffey Readers, which were textbooks for young students that emphasized morality, patriotism, and idealism.) Emma Willard and Mary Lyon (both established colleges for women.) Accomplishments: Better school houses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, expanded curriculum. In higher education, Oberlin College began to accept women students as well as black students, and colleges for women were established elsewhere in the country. Setbacks: Black slaves in the South were legally barred from education, free black people were still generally excluded from schooling, even public school was an expensive luxury for the poor.
Prison Reform
Goals: Have prisons reform inmates as well as punish them. Reformers also wanted proper treatment for those "suffering insanity" (many mentally ill people at the time were kept in prisons and recieved extremely cruel treatment) Key figures: Dorthea Dix (assembled reports on the treatment of the mentally ill and advocated for better institutional practices) Accomplishments: Dix's 1843 petition to the Massachusetts legisilature and her consistent persistance led to improved treatment of the mentally ill and a better understanding of their issues. Setbacks: persistent discrimination, not observed, wretched conditions, understanding of psychology limited
Women's Rights Movement
Goals: End the separation between the private life of women and the public life of men; grant women more power in public life Key figures: Elizabeth Cady Stanton (advocated suffrage for women) Susan B. Anthony (lecturer of women's rights) Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Blackwell The Grimke sisters Accomplishments: Convention at Seneca Falls, the Declaration of Sentiments, women were gradually admitted to colleges, wives in some states could own property after marriage Setbacks: The movement was eclipsed by the campaign against slavery in the years leading up to the civil war. Advocates for women's suffrage were often ridiculed, and women still not vote in the civil war era.
Temperance Movement
Goals: The temperance movement encouraged less consumption of alcohol; people believed heavy drinking decreased the safety and efficiency of labor and also wreaked havoc on family life. Key figures: Neal S. Dow (Known as the "Father of Prohibition." He sponsored the Maine Law of 1851) Accomplishments: Maine Law of 1851 and similar laws passed in Northern states. Overall, there was less consumption of liquor amongst women and of hard liquor in general. Setbacks: Laws prohibitng alchohol were repealed, deemed unconstitutional, and openly flouted.
Utopian Societies
Goals: Seeking out human betterment by setting up societes of cooperative, communistic nature Key figures: Mother Ann Lee (shakers) Accomplishments: flourished for a period of time; increase of new ideas Setbacks: these communities would often fail due to various reason (shakers = no children)
Abolition of Slavery
the movement in opposition to slavery, often demanding immediate, uncompensated emancipation of all slaves. This was generally considered radical, and there were only a few adamant abolitionists prior to the Civil War. Almost all abolitionists advocated legal, but not social equality for blacks.
Nationalistic Literature
As a result of the War of 1812 and European romanticism, literature in the US reflected patriotism and the individualistic mood of the era. The Knickerbocker group found great success as writers of the time (Byrant, Irving, Cooper).
Planter Aristocracy
Planter elite felt a strong obligation to serve the public and had time for studying; thus they turned out many statesmen Planters sent their children to Northern or foreign private schooling institutions, harming tax-supported public education. They fancied themselves part of a romanticized feudal system, as perpetuated by Sir Walter Scott. Southern women with slaves rarely supported abolition, as they had control over the household female slaves. -South governed by select few rich people, was the head of the southern society. they determined the political, economic, and even the social life of their region. the wealthiest had home in towns or cities as well as summer homes, and they traveled widely, especially to europe, children got good education. they were defined as the cotton magnates, the sugar, rice, and tobacco, the whites who owned at least 40 or 50 slaves and 800 or more acres - women dependent on slaves
Nat Turner/His Rebellion
Him: Leader of the Virginia slave revolt that resulted in the deaths of sixty whites and raised fears among white Southerners of further uprisings. Rebellion: Virginia slave revolt that resulted in the deaths of sixty whites and raised fears among white Southerners of further uprisings.
American Colonization Society
Reflecting the focus of early abolitionists on transporting freed blacks back to Africa, the organization established Liberia, a West-African settlement intended as a haven for emancipated slaves.
William Lloyd Garrison
Publisher of the antislavery newspaper, "The Liberator." He was radical and often the target of mob outrage; he started the American Anti-Slavery society.
David Walker
Black abolitonist who wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World" which advocated bloody end to slavery
Frederick Douglass
The most prominent black abolitionist of the era and a former slave; he published his autobiography and gave speeches and writings in support of the cause.
Elijah Lovejoy
Reverand who opposed slavery and doubted the chastity of Catholic women; he was killed by a mob and became known as the "martyr abolitionist"
Manifest Destiny
Belief that the United States was destined by God to spread its "empire of liberty" across North America. Served as a justification for mid-nineteenth century expansionism. In the election of 1844, expansionist Democrats campaigned on promises of annexing Texas and occupying Oregon.
Wilmot Proviso
Amendment that sought to prohibit slavery from territories acquired from Mexico. Introduced by a Pennsylvania congressman David Wilmot, the failed amendment ratcheted up tensions between North and South over the issue of slavery. It never became a federal law, but was endorsed by most free states and later adopted by the Free-Soil party.
Popular Sovereignty
Notion that the sovereign people of a given territory should decide whether to allow slavery. Though abolitionists opposed it as a compromise that could extend slavery, it appealed to many Americans because it accorded with democratic principle of self-determination. Politicians liked it because it was a comfortable compromise between free soilers' and southern demands, allowing them to dissolve a national issue into smaller local ones.
Compromise of 1850
Admitted California as a free state, opened New Mexico and Utah to popular sovereignty, ended the slave trade (but not slavery itself) in Washington D.C., and introduced a more stringent fugitive slave law. Widely opposed in both the North and South, it did little to settle the escalating dispute over slavery. The Compromise favored the north overall, but the north was also deeply angered over the accompanying Fugitive Slave Laws.
Gadsden Purchase
Acquired additional land from Mexico for $10 million to facilitate the construction of a southern transcontinental railroad. Rationale: Transportation into new land from the Mexican Cession was difficult, and so land transportation was imperative to keep the new land connected to the rest of the country. Controversy: The North criticized the purchase as paying an excessive sum for a small amount of desert land; they also disliked it because it gave the South greater claims over the coveted railroad. As a result, northern railroad boosters demanded Nebraska be organized (into a free soil state).
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Proposed that Nebraska be split into two and that the issue of slavery be decided by popular sovereignty in the Kansas and Nebraska territories, thus revoking the 1820 Missouri Compromise. Introduced by Stephen Douglass in an effort to bring Nebraska into the Union and pave the way for a northern transcontinental railroad. It was criticized for contradicting the Missouri Compromise; in response, the North largely disregarded the Compromise of 1850.
The Hudson River School of Art
The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by Romanticism. The paintings typically depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area, including the Catskill, Adirondack, and White Mountains
Panic of 1819
Cause of the Panic of 1819 1 - A dramatic decline in cotton prices 2 - A contraction of credit by the Bank of the US designed to curb inflation 3 - An 1817 congressional order requiring hard-currency payments for land purchases 4 - The closing of factories due to foreign competition What was the Panic of 1819 - The economic disaster (financial collapse) was largely the fault of the Second Bank of the US. - It which had tightened credit in a belated effort to control inflation (they tried to call in their loans). Effects of the Panic of 1819 - Thousands of Americans lost their savings and property, and unemployment estimates suggest that half a million people lost their lands. - The depression caused business/personal bankruptcies skyrocketed (ended the "era of good feelings"). - Temporarily ended economic expansion. - Caused Americans to have a deep distrust of banking and also allowed for a backlash on the idea of westward expansion. Severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the United States to curb over-speculation on western lands. It disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the West, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian Democracy
Jacksonian Democracy
The idea of spreading political power to the people and ensuring majority rule as well as supporting the "common man"
American System
the policy of promoting industry in the U.S. by adoption of a high protective tariff and of developing internal improvements by the federal government (as advocated by Henry Clay from 1816 to 1828) Henry Clay's three-pronged system to promote American industry. Clay advocated a strong banking system, a protective tariff and a federally funded transportation network. It focused on uniting the country both economically and politically (exchange of raw materials from the South/West for Northern manufactured goods.)
Monroe's Foreign Policy
Monroe Doctrine: A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere. The United States largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets. Adams Onis Treaty/Purchase of Florida: Under the agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the United States, which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas. MONROE OVERALL: He first reiterated the traditional U.S. policy of neutrality with regard to European wars and conflicts. He then declared that the United States would not accept the recolonization of any country by its former European master, though he also avowed non-interference with existing European colonies in the Americas; enunciates a policy of neutrality towards the Latin American colonies seeking independence
Missouri Compromise
The Missouri Compromise consisted of three large parts: Missouri entered the Union as a slave state, Maine entered as a free state, and the 36ā€™30ā€ line was established as the dividing line regarding slavery for the remainder of the Louisiana Territory. occurred after the LA purchase bc there was lots of land and ppl freaked
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Showed northerners and the world the horrors of slavery while southerners attack it as an exaggeration, contributed to the start of the Civil War.
Lowell Mills
These mills combined the textile processes of spinning and weaving under one roof, essentially eliminating the "putting-out system" in favor of mass production of high-quality cloth. Mills that employed women to work. They offered supervision for the women at all times and lodging so they could stay near their work. Located in Lowell, MA.
Steamships/Railroads
allowed for easier transportation to west, transport of goods, etc:.
Ecological Imperialsim
Historians' term for the spoliation of Western natural resources through excessive hunting, logging, mining, and grazing.
Era of Good Feelings
Popular name for the period of one-party, Republican, rule during James Monroe's presidency. The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank
Lowell Mill Girls
the Lowell mill women organized, went on strike and mobilized in politics when women couldn't even voteā€”and created the first union of working women in American history. protested cut wages, long hours, and unfair working conditions
Industrial Revolution
what it was: creation and integration of use of steam powered machines in factories to create mass product items (textiles) impact on dev of the US: improvements of agricultural system, trans communication manufacturing became the basis of the economy in N slavery expanded to keep up w/ North competition/need for cotton sewing machines (easy made clothes)
cultural nationalism
-young nation was excited about the prospects of moving westward -had little interest in European wars -patriotic themes in paintings, schoolbooks -Stuart, Peale, Trumball (paintings) -Noah Webster's patriotic speller: blue-backed speller
economic nationalism
-movement to support the growth of the nation's economy -internal improvements was a big aspect (building of roads and canals) TARIFF OF 1816 -Congress raised tariff rates on certain goods for express purpose of protecting US manufacturers -Americans feared British would dump their goods -first protective tariff in US history -protective tariff: a tariff imposed to protect domestic firms from import competition
Federalists
They favored weaker state governments, a strong centralized government, the indirect election of government officials, longer term limits for officeholders, and representative, rather than direct, democracy.
Democratic Republicans (jeffersonian)
believed in individual freedoms and the rights of states. They feared that the concentration of federal power under George Washington and John Adams represented a dangerous threat to liberty.
Anti-Masonic Party
a 19th century single issue third party that opposed freemasonry as well as Andrew Jackson. They drew support from Evangelists and aspired to remove the politically influential secret Masonic Order. (hated them bc they were secretive and exclusive (un-democratic))
democratic (AJ)
The idea of spreading political power to the people and ensuring majority rule as well as supporting the "common man" First, it declared itself to be the party of ordinary farmers and workers. Second, it opposed the special privileges of economic elites. Third, to offer affordable western land to ordinary white Americans, Indians needed to be forced further westward.
whigs
The Whig Party believed in a strong federal government, similar to the Federalist Party that preceded it. The federal government must provide its citizenry with a transportation infrastructure to assist economic development. Many Whigs also called for government support of business through tariffs. The Whig party avoided taking any position on slavery, seeking northern compromise on the issue in return for southern support for northern economic interests.
foreign policy of the war of 1812
Following the conclusion of the War of 1812, Manifest Destiny attained its strongest ideological pull. Even though the United States did not expand geographically nor was there an actual winner of the War of 1812, relations between the United States and Britain were impacted greatly. The British would now need to recognize the United States as a world power. Also, tensions between Americans and Native Americans began to rise. Nationalism began to spread throughout the United States since the nation was able to fend off the British thus influencing manifest destiny. Expanding the nation to the Pacific Ocean was now a possibility for Americans. Throughout the early history of the United States, manifest destiny was shaping the country in significant ways. The citizens of the United States believed that it was their destiny and right to expand and grow. The War of 1812 helped prove that this right was legitimate. The United States fended off the British for a second straight time, and this bestowed confidence in the public. These events helped make the term of manifest destiny relevant. aka US became more defensive and wanted more land bc they had big heads
westward expansion
A significant push toward the west coast of North America began in the 1810s. It was intensified by the belief in manifest destiny, federally issued Indian removal acts, and economic promise.
North Development
-focused on industrialization bc rocky soil (no crops :( ) -had more abolitionists but like not strong push for no slavey yk -had more colleges and educational opps than south -didnt want westward expansion bc didn't want more slave states (NO THROW OF BALANCE!!!)
South Development
-kinda more rights for women here (they could own property Yippie!) -slave reliant/ farm reliant -less educated -often pushed for wars and conflict (M-A war, pushed for British war, etc blah blah) -had an aristocratic type society (planters w/ more land were at the top, slaves and poor farmers at bottom)