Research Exam 1

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

spaced repetition





Practice Test



118 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (118)
degree to which research evidence can be applied to individuals, small groups of individuals, or local contexts
principle that is accepted as being true based on logic or reason, without proof
Cause-probing Research
research designed to illuminate the underlying causes of phenomena
Clinical Nursing Research
research designed to guide nursing practice and to improve the health and quality of life of nurses' clients
Clinical significance
practical importance of research results in terms of whether they have genuine, palpable effects on the daily lives of patients or on the health care decisions made on their behalf
Constructivist Paradigm
there are multiple interpretations of reality, and the goal of research is to understand how individuals construct reality within their context; associated with qualitative research
Empirical Evidence
evidence that is rooted in objective reality and gathered through the senses rather than through personal beliefs, quantitative
Evidence-based Practice (EBP)
practice that involves making clinical decisions based on clinical judgment, patient preferences, and on the best available evidence, usually evidence from disciplined research
Evidence Hierarchy
ranked arrangement of the strength of research evidence based on the rigor of the method that produced it; tradition evidence hierarchies are appropriate primarily for cause-probing research
ability to generalize research findings to individuals who did not take part in the study
Journal Club
group that meets in clinical contexts to discuss and critically appraise research articles published in journals
Level of Evidence Scale
rank orders evidence for cause-probing questions in terms of risk of bias, based on evidence hierarchies; Level I evidence is typically systematic review of randomized controlled trials
approach to the synthesis of qualitative evidence in which findings are categorized and summarized rather than transformed, as in a metasynthesis
technique for quantitatively integrating the results of multiple studies addressing the same or highly similar research question
interpretive translation of evidence produced by systematically integrating findings from multiple qualitative studies
Mixed Methods Research
research in which both qualitative and quantitative data are collected and analyzed to address different but related questions
Mixed Studies Review
systematic review that integrates and synthesizes findings from qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies on a topic
Nursing Research
systematic inquiry designed to develop evidence about issues of importance to nurses and their clients
worldview, a general perspective on the world's complexities
Patient Centeredness
focus, in both health care and in research, on individuals patients' needs and values, including involving patients in care decisions and research priorities
PICO format
framework for asking well-worded questions and for searching for evidence, where P=population, I=intervention, C=comparison, and O=outcome
Positivist Paradigm
paradigm underlying the traditional scientific approach, which assumes that there is and orderly reality that can be objectively studied; often associated with quantitative research
Primary Study
in a systematic review, an original study whose findings are the data in the review
Qualitative Research
investigation of phenomena, typically in an in-depth and holistic fashion, through the collection of rich narrative materials using a flexible research design
Quantitative Research
investigation of phenomena that lend themselves to precise measurement and quantification, often involving a rigorous and controlled design and statistical analysis of data
systematic inquiry that relies on disciplined methods to answer questions and solve preoblems
Research Methods
techniques researchers use to structure a study and to gather and analyze relevant information
Scientific Method
set of orderly, systematic, controlled procedures for acquiring dependable, empirical, and typically quantitative, information; the methodological approach associated with the positivist paradigm
Systematic Review
methodical, scholarly inquiry that summarizes and evaluates current evidence on a research question
Associative Relationship
association between two variables that cannot be described as casual
Cause and Effect (casual) relationship
relationship between two variables wherein the presence or value of one variable (the cause) determines the presence or value of the other (the effect)
Clinical Trial
study designed to assess the safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of a new clinical intervention, often involving several phases
abstraction based on observation or self-reporting of behaviors or characteristics
Conceptual Definition
abstract or theoretical meaning of a concept of interest
abstraction or concept that is invented (constructed) by researchers based on inferences from human behavior or human traits
pieces of information obtained in a study
Dependent Variabel
variable hypothesized to depend on or be caused by the independent variable (what is being measured)
Emergent Design
design that unfolds in the course of a qualitative study as the researcher makes ongoing design decisions reflecting what has already been learned
branch of human inquiry, associated with anthropology, focuses on the culture of a group of people, with an effort to understand the worldview and customs of those under study
Experimental Research
research using a design in which the researcher controls (manipulates) the independent variable by randomly assigning people to different treatment groups; randomized controlled trials use experimental designs
Gaining Entree
process of gaining access to study participants through the cooperation of key gatekeepers in a selected community or site
Grounded Theory
approach to collecting and analyzing qualitative data that aims to develop theories about social psychological processes grounded in real-world observations
statement of predicted relationships between variables
Independent Variable
variable that is believed to cause or influence the dependent variable, in experimental research, the manipulated variable; the independent variable is both the I and C in PICO, what's being changed
person who provides information to researchers about a phenomenon under study; a term used mostly in qualitative studies
Intervention Protocol
specification of what the intervention and alternative (control) treatment conditions are, how they should be administered and who should administer them
Literature Review
summary of research on a topic, often prepared to put a research problem in context or to summarize existing evidence; typically less rigorously conducted that a systematic review
Nonexperimental Research
studies in which the researcher collects data without introducing an intervention; also called observational research
Observational Study
study that does not involve an intervention, nonexperimental research in which phenomena are merely observed
Operational Definition
definition of a concept or variable in terms of the procedures by which it is to be measured
Outcome Variable
term often used to refer to the dependent variable, the outcome (endpoint) of interest, the O in PICO
qualitative research tradition, with roots in philosophy and psychology, that focuses on the lived experience of humans
entire set of individuals or objects having some common characteristics, P in PICO
Qualitative Data
information in narrative (nonnumeric) form, such as the information provided in an unstructured interview
Qualitative Descriptive Research
qualitative studies that yield rich descriptions of phenomena but that are no embedded in a qualitative tradition such as phenomenology
Quantitative Data
information collected in a quantified (numeric) form
bond or connection between two or more variables
Research Design
overall plan for addressing a research question, including strategies for enhancing the study's integrity
subset of a population comprising those selected to participate in a study
collection of qualitative data to the point where a sense of closure is attained because new data yield redundant information
Statistical Analysis
organization and analysis of quantitative data using statistical procedures, including both descriptive and inferential statistics
an individual who participates and provides data in a study; used in quantitative research
recurring regularity emerging from an analysis of qualitative data
explanation of some aspect of reality
attribute that varies, take on different values
brief description of the study placed at the beginning of the article
any influence that distorts the results of a study and undermines validity or trustworthiness
used in some quantitative studies to prevent biases stemming from people's awareness
Confounding Variable
variable that is extraneous to the research question and that confounds the relationship between the independent and dependent variables
criterion for evaluating trustworthiness in qualitative studies, referring to confidence in the truth of the data
Critical Appraisal
objective assessment of a study's strengths, limitations, and relevance, often to reach a conclusion about whether its evidence can be applied to practice
results of the analysis of research data
IMRAD format
Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion
conclusion drawn from the study evidence using logical reasoning and taking into account the methods used to generate that evidence
Journal Article
descriptions of studies publishes in professional journals
Level of significance
index of how probable it is that the findings are reliable
p value
probability that the obtained results are due to chance
sham or pseudo intervention, sometimes used as a control group condition
having certain feature of the study established by chance rather than by researcher preference
process of reflecting critically on the self and of analyzing and noting personal values and beliefs that could affect data collection and interpretation
accuracy and consistency of information obtained in a study
Research Control
holding constant influences on the outcome so that the relationship between the independent and dependent variables can be understood
Scientific Merit
degree to which a study is methodologically and conceptually sound
Statistical Significance
the findings are probably true and replicable
Statistical Test
used to test hypotheses and to evaluate the reliability of the findings
extent to which qualitative findings can be transferred to other settings, as another aspect of trustworthiness
use of multiple sources or references to draw conclusions about what constitutes the truth
degree of confidence qualitative researchers have in their data and analyses, often assessed using the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, confirmability, and authenticity
more complex concept that broadly concerns the soundness of the study's evidence
most secure means of protecting confidentiality, occurs when the researcher cannot link participants to their data
child's affirmative agreement to participate in a study
Belmont Report
imposes a duty on researchers to minimize harm and maximize benefits
Certificate of Confidentiality
allows researchers to refuse to disclose information on study participants in any legal proceeding
Code of Ethics
fundamental ethical principles established by a discipline or institution to guide researchers' conduct in research with human or animal participatns
protection of study participants' privacy, such that data they provide are never publicly identified and divulged
Consent Form
written agreement signed by a study participant and a researcher concerning the terms and conditions of voluntary participation in a study
communication with study participants after participation is complete regarding aspects of the study
Ethical Dilemma
situation in which there is a conflict between ethical principles and the research methods needed to maximize the quality of study evidence
Full Disclosure
researcher has fully described the study, the person's right to refuse participation, and potential risks and benefits
Informed Consent
participants have adequate information about the study, comprehend the information, and can consent to or decline participation voluntarily
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
term use in the US to refer to the institutional group that convenes to review proposed and ongoing studies with respect to ethical considerations
Minimal Risk
risk expected to be no greater than those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during routine procedure
Risk/benefit Assessment
assessment of the relative costs and benefits, to an individual study participant and to society at large, of participation in a study; also the relative costs and benefits of implementing an innovation
monetary payment to individuals taking part in a study as an incentive for their participation and/or to compensate for time and expenses
Vulnerable Group
special groups of people whose rights in studies need special protection because of their inability to provide meaningful informed consent or because their circumstances place them at higher-than-average risk of adverse effects
widely used instrument for assessing clinical practice guidelines
degree to which research evidence can be applied to individuals, small groups of individuals, or local contexts
Clinical Practice Guidelines
practice guidelines that are evidence-based, combining a synthesis and appraisal of research evidence with specific recommendations for clinical decisions
Cochrane Collaboration
international organization that aims to facilitate well-informed decisions about health care by preparing systematic reviews of the effects of health care interventions
Iowa Model
widely used framework that can be used to guide the development and implementation of a project to promote evidence-based practice
Knowledge Translation
synthesis, exchange, and application of knowledge by relevant stakeholders to accelerate the benefits of global and local innovation in strengthening health systems and improving people's health
Practice-based Evidence
research evidence that is developed in real-world settings and is responsive to the needs and circumstances of specific patients and contexts
Pragmatic Clinical Trial
trial that addresses practical questions about the benefits, risks, and costs of an intervention as it would unfold in routine clinical practice to enhance clinical decision making
Precision Health Care
model that proposes the customization of health care, with decisions and treatment tailored to individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, behavioral, lifestyle, and environmental profile
Research Utilization
use of findings from a study in a practical application, translating new knowledge into real-world applications
Subgroup Analysis
analytic efforts to understand whether intervention effects vary for defined groups of people; undertaken to disentangle heterogeneity of treatment effects (HTE)
The 5 As
the basic steps in the EBP process: Ask, Acquire, Appraise, Apply, and Assess