Unit 4 Chapter 5: History of the Periodic Table

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presented a method for accurately measures atomic masses of atoms
arranged the 63 known elements by increasing atomic mass
organized elements according to increasing atomic number
Periodic Law
the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
A group elements
main group or representative elements; s & p blocks
B group elements
transition metals; d block
atomic radius (periodic table)
decreases across a period, increases down a group
ionization energy (periodic table)
increases across a period, decreases down a group
electronegativity (periodic table)
increases across a period, decreases down a group
ion configuration
electron configuration, but +/- the lost/gained electrons
horizontal rows across the periodic table
vertical columns on the periodic table
f block
inner transition metals
noble gases
group 8A (VIIIA); full valence electrons
-found lining the staircase -have properties of both metals and non-metals -semiconductors of electricity
particle with a non-neutral (+ or -) charge
positive ion (+); electrons are lost
negative ion (-); electrons are gained
atomic radius
half of the distance between nuclei in covalently bonded diatomic molecules
ionic radii (+)
cations formed when metal atom loses one or more electrons, increases electronegativity
ionic radii (-)
anions formed when nonmetallic atoms gain one or more electrons, decreases electronegativity
neutral vs cation
cations are smaller than their corresponding neutral atom
neutral vs anion
anions are bigger than their corresponding neutral atom
ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from an atom
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract (gain) electrons
ion configuration
electron configuration + or - electrons gained/lost
properties of metals
-located to the left of the staircase -good conductor of heat and electricity -malleable -ductile -high tensile strength -luster
properties of alkali metals
-easily lose valence electron -most reactive metal group -never found pure in nature -react violently with water
properties or alkaline-earth metals
-less reactive than alkali metals -never found pure in nature -loses two valence electrons
properties of non-metals
-located to the right of the staircase -poor conductors of heat and electricity -brittle -many are gases at room temperature
properties of halogens
-react vigorously with most metals to form salts -most reactive non-metal group