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the study of human population
inhabited land
arable land
any land capable of being used to grow crops
arithmetic density
calculated by dividing a regions population by its total area
physiological density
calculated by dividing the population by the amount of arable land
agricultural density
calculated by dividing the number of farmers in an area by the amount of arable land
social stratification
the hierarchal division of people into groups based on economic status, power, and or ethnicity
having more people in an area than it can support
carrying capacity
the number of people a region can support without damaging the environment
a boundary adjustment
population pyramid
an age-sex composition graph that provides information about birth rates, death rates, life expectancy, and economic development based on age and gender
crude death rate (CDR)
the number of deaths during the year per 1000 people
crude birth rate (CBR)
the number of live births during the year per 1000 people
natural increase rate or rate of natural increase (NIR or RNI)
the percentage at which a country's population is growing or declining without the impact of migration
doubling time
the time it takes for a population to double in size
the frequency of death in a population
total fertility rate (TFR)
the number of children who would be born per woman
infant mortality rate (IMR)
the number of children who die before their first birthday
life expectancy
the average number of years a person lives
migration from a place (people moving out of a country)
people coming into a country
demographic transition model (DTM)
shows 5 typical stages of population change that countries experience as they modernize
epidemiological transition model (ETM)
shows predictable stages in disease and life expectance as countries develop
wide spread diseases that affect a large population
zero population growth
the number of people in a population neither grows nor declines
people who accept Malthus's fundamental premise as correct
malthus critic
when world population increase faster than food production rate which results in mass starvation.
boserup theory
the more people there are the more hand there are to work rather than just mouths to feed
anti-natalist policy
policies that attempt to decrease the number of births in a country
pro-natalist policy
programs designed to increase the fertility rate
ravenstein's laws of migration
the foundation of modern migration studies in geography
dependency ratio
a value comparing the working to non-working parts of a population
the permanent or semi-permanent relocation of people from one place to another
push factors
negative circumstances, events, or conditions present where a person lives that compels a person to leave
pull factors
positive circumstances, events, or conditions in an area than compels a person to move there
intervening obstacles
barriers that make migrants reaching their desired destinations more difficult
intervening opportunities
opportunities migrants may encounter en route that disrupts their original migration plan
counter migration
when a migration flow produces a movement in the opposite direction
migration transition model
countries in stages 2 and 3 on the DTM experience rapid population growth and often overcrowding which limits economic opportunity causing people to not migrate to those countries
gravity model
size and distance of 2 cities or countries will influence the amount of interactions
internal migration
the movement that occurs within a country
voluntary migration
occurs when people choose to relocate
forced migration
migration that is involuntary (migrants have no choice but to move)
chain migration
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
step migration
a migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages
refers to the movement of people from rural areas to urban area
people who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
internally displaced person
someone who has been forced to migrate for similar political reasons as a refugee but has not crossed an international border
asylum seekers
someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee
transnational migration
when people move from one country to another, or internationally rather than internally
the process of herders moving with their animals to different pastures during different seasons
guest worker policies
government regulation of the flow of workers that are from other countries
brain drain
when migration out of a country is made up of highly skilled people
a strong dislike of people of another culture
money sent to an immigrants family and friends from the country they left
ethnic enclaves
neighborhoods filled primarily with people of the same ethnic group