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96 Terms
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study of ecosystems excluding social, economic, religious, and political factors
environmental science
"bigger picture," includes social, economic, religious, political, factors along with culture and attitude towards the enviroment
gross national product; sum of a nations economic output/ all goods/services in a nation in a year
gross domestic product; measure of a country's goods and services
any substance or chemical that, in excess, harms the environment
Tragedy of the Commons
environmental novel/statement written by Garret Hardin; demonstrates how to respect, treat, and use common ground
Tragedy of the Commons cause
environmental degradation/ issues over who owns what
Tragedy of the Commons effect
big political issue over how we use common ground + how we take care of it
layers of the earth
core, mantel, crust
35%- primarily composed of nickel and iron, solid + dense, under extreme pressure, center of the earth
64%- hot molten "lava," under extreme pressure, everything in between core and crust
<1%- thin layer of earth that we live on, least dense of the three
who uses the most of the world's resources?
developed countries
layers of the atmosphere
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
-1st layer/one we live in -78% N2, 21% O2, 1% O3 -solid particles in the air: dust, dirt, pollen, viruses, bacteria -where our weather comes from -dense layer compared to others
-2nd layer -temperature rises/hottest layer -where ozone belongs
-3rd layer -coldest air/very thin
-4th/outermost layer -N2 + 02 -absorbs radiant energy from the sun >northern liights = energy being absorbed -very very thin
filters/protects humans from UV rays
what form of energy is wasted/lost by members of a ecosystem?
levels of organization of matter
most important factors in defining a biome
-climate >temperature + precipitation
aquatic zones
terrestrial biomes
1st trophic level
producers -autotrophs (photosynthesis) -creates energy from sun, provides our energy
2nd trophic level
primary consumers -heterotrophs -eats plants (herbivore)
3rd trophic level
secondary consumer -eats primary consumer -omnivor
4th trophic level
tertiary consumer -eats secondary consumer
microscopic, eats dead organisms
big decomposer, eats dead plants and animals
how much energy is passed on to the next energy level?
soil particles
sand, silt, clay
-size of basketball -largest + gritty -will not ribbon -lots of air space -does not hold nutrients well
-size of tennis ball -cannot see with human eye -water moves through slowly -has air space -will ribbon -good foundation
-size of marbles -very small particles -does not let water come through -packed tight/sticky -lots of nutrients/ions >but does not let go of them -does not mix well with plants
eats plants
eats meat
eats plants + meat
heterotroph: must eat + consume energy
pH scale
measures the concentration of H+ ions in a solution
acidic pH
neutral pH
basic pH
hydrologic cycle
quick cycle of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
properties of water
-polar covalent bond -universal solvent -cohesive: sticks to itself -adhesive: sticks to almost everything -can be present as a solid, liquid, or gas at a normal temp -needs A LOT of energy to change states -gains energy from gas -> solid
greenhouse gas
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere, traps heat, absorbs + emits radiant energy
greenhouse effect
-carbon dioxide is making the atmosphere thicker -this thickness traps the suns heat/solar radiation, causing warming -has nothing to do with ozone
most important factor in defining a climate
long term patterns of weather (temp+rain)
land regions defined by climate composed of many ecosystems, # is not fixated/strictly defined
job; what an organism does in an ecosystem
-areas of land, not always underwater, such as: bogs, marshes, swamps, and food plains saturated with water -supports aquatic plant life -very^3 important in water filtration and storage -highly regulated by the government
farming strategy where large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year
what % of the earth is ocean?
native species
-normally live + thrive in a particular ecosystem -keeps each others numbers in check
non-native species
-alien/invasive species -causes financial burdens -no-one to eat them so they over run native species
indicator species
-presence/absence tells something good or bad in an ecosystem
keystone species
-presence/absence can make or break a community -community depends on species
foundation species
-indirectly maintains the health of a community -usually micro-organisms
variety of life in the world/ particular habitat or ecosystem
genetic diversity
-range of genetic material present in a gene pool or population of species, keeps legal genes from being shown
species diversity
-# of different species in an ecosystem; relative abundance of producers, consumers, and decomposers
niche diversity
-how organisms respond to changes/challenges within their ecosystems -more than one producer, consumer, or decomposers doing their jobs
habitat diversity
-all organisms cannot live in the same place
interspecies competition
two different species wanting the same resources; usually food, but can be living space or territory
invasive species in an island community that messes up stability
intraspecies competition
same species competing for mates (females)/ leadership
-who eats who -numbers usually follow each other up + down, it is very important to keep numbers in check -humans often interfere
-organism that lives in/on host: humans are perfect host -causes damage to host, but does not kill it: unless host is weak -can weaken host and not kill them -reproduces rapidly (millions)
two species interact and both benefit
obligate mutualism
have to have each other
when one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
relationship between two organisms: can be good, bad, or indifferent
coming into a environment
leaving an environment
capacity for growth
-j shape: shows exponential/intrinsic growth -is impossible within a population because a population cannot continue to produce at the maximum for ever
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K (carrying capacity)
maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain before it hits environmental resistance
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when a population becomes larger than the environments carrying capacity: takes a while for resistance to begin and results in a population growth
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sigmoid curve
when a population fluctuates around the carrying capacity
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name of line on a graph that can be moved due to human intervention
K/carrying capacity
exponential growth
-increase within a population that occurs at the same time over time, more realistic because is eventually slows down
density dependent factors
-limiting factor that depends on population size -less biodiversity->worse it affects populations -ex.) disease, humans, overcrowding, competition for food + space
density independent factors
-affects a population regardless of population size -ex.) nature (fire+floods), human activity
describe a stable ecosystem
-has biodiversity->consumers, producers, + decomposers -does not show many changes (consistence) -has resilience and inertia
-basic population remains the same size and are relative to each other -can fluctuate due to weather + climate -humans can influance
-everything in a community wants to keep doing what they are doing -produces a steady rate of reproduction
-a communities ability to handle stress and recover; can be humans or animals
-scientific study of human populations
crude birth rate
number of live births per year per 1,000 people
age structure diagram
shows the momentum of population growth
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rapid growth
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slow growth
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zero growth
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doubling time/ rule of 70
70 / % growth rate = # of years to double
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-human development index -established by United Nations to evaluate the quality of life across different nations
HDI is determined by:
-life expectancy -adult literacy -level of income/standard of living -child survival rate -childhood education -gender equality -clean water acess -sanitation
the single best indicator of quality of life:
infant mortality