(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
adenosine diphosphate; molecule that ATP becomes when it gives up one of its three phosphate groups
Chemical energy available to do work
substrate level phosphorylation
the enzyme-mediated direct transfer of phosphate from another molecule (the substrate) to ADP
Gain of electrons by a chemical reactant; any reduction is accompanied by an oxidation.
Relative loss of electrons in a chemical reaction; either outright removal to form an ion, or the sharing of electrons with substances having a greater affinity for them, such as oxygen. Most oxidations, including biological ones, are associated with the liberation of energy.
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide - a coenzyme that is an electron carrier; NAD+ is oxidized, NADH is reduced
compound that loses electrons in a reaction
compound that gains electrons in a reaction
The catabolic pathways by which electrons are removed from various molecules and passed through intermediate electron carriers to O2, generating H2O and releasing energy.
Requiring molecular oxygen, O2
pyruvate molecules are oxidized and produces acetyl-CoA, CO2, and NADH
citric acid cycle
In cellular respiration, a set of chemical reactions whereby acetyl CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms are stored as NADH and FADH2. Also called the Krebs cycle.
endergonic stage of glycolysis in which glucose is converted into G3P
exergonic stage of glycolysis in which G3P is converted into two molecules of pyruvate
Three-carbon compound that forms as an end product of glycolysis.
reduced electron carrier molecule formed in glycolysis
another name for the citric acid cycle
molecule formed from the oxidation of pyruvate
a reduced coenzyme similar to NADH, an electron carrier
Occurring without the use of molecular oxygen, O2.
Speaking specifically about energy metabolism, the anaerobic degradation of a substance such as glucose to smaller molecules such as lactic acid or alcohol with the extraction of energy. (2) Speaking generally, metabolic processes that occur in the absence of O2.
lactic acid fermentations
Anaerobic series of reactions that convert glucose to lactic acid, in some bacteria and animal cells.
Anaerobic series of reactions that convert glucose to ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide in some plants and yeast cells.
photosynthesis: Metabolic processes carried out by green plants and cyanobacteria, by which visible light is trapped and the energy used to convert CO2 into organic compounds.
The initial phase of photosynthesis, in which light energy is converted into chemical energy.
A substance that absorbs visible light.
Any of several green pigments associated with chloroplasts or with certain bacterial membranes; responsible for trapping light energy for photosynthesis.
A graph of light absorption versus wavelength of light; shows how much light is absorbed at each wavelength.
A graph of a biological process versus light wavelength; shows which wavelengths are involved in the process.
in photosynthesis, a group of different molecules that cooperate to absorb light energy and transfer it to a reaction center. Also called antenna system.
A light-harvesting complex in the chloroplast thylakoid composed of pigments and proteins.
cyclic electron transport
in photosynthetic light reactions, the flow of electrons that produces ATP but no NADPH or O2.
noncyclic electron transport
In photosynthesis, the flow of electrons that forms ATP, NADPH, and O2.
a series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugar
An organism that is capable of living exclusively on inorganic materials, water, and an energy source other than the chemical bonds of organic compounds. Some autotrophs (photoautotrophs) use sunlight as their energy source. Others (chemoautotrophs) use oxidation of inorganic compounds.
An organism that requires preformed organic molecules as sources of energy and chemical building blocks.
The sum of the building & breaking reactions occurring in cells
Series of reactions that release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds.
Series of reactions that consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones.
The study of how organisms manage their energy resources.
Energy associated with relative motion of objects.
Kinetic energy associated with the random movement of molecules or atoms. (heat)
A measure of disorder or randomness. Tends to increase in the universe.
Measures the portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system, as in a living cell.
Reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings.
Reaction that proceeds with a net release of free energy.
A chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
Protein that speeds up reactions. Typically end in "ase" (ex. Peroxidase, Lipase)
The amount of energy needed to push the reactants over an energy barrier.
When an enzyme binds to its substrate, it forms:
A pocket or groove on the surface of the enzyme where a substrate can bind.
induced fit model
States that the enzyme and substrate undergo conformational changes to interact fully with one another (as opposed to "Lock & Key"
Reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites.
Impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme (other than the active site).
feedback inhibition/negative feedback
A metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway.
Describes an enzyme's maximum activity when every active site is being used.
Potential energy trapped in molecular bonds.
When a reaction doesn't require energy to proceed it is said to be this - doesn't mean it will be FAST.
substance that resembles the normal substrate competes with the substrate for the active site
a chemical that binds to an enzyme but not in the active site. This chemical will change the shape of the enzyme (reversible)
the substance an enzyme catalyzes, changes.
a chemical reaction where energy is given off, so that the products have less energy than the reactants.
a chemical reaction where energy is taken in, so that the products have more energy than the reactants.
Enzyme that can break the bonds of starch to form the carbohydrate monomer, glucose.
Characteristic of proteins; a change in shape that stops the protein from functioning.
__________ regulation of enzyme occurs when a molecule binds to an enzyme changing the protein's shape
______ an agent that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself being permanently altered
The less stable state that occurs and is usually a high-energy state between reactants and products in a chemical reaction
When Enzyme bring together specific atoms into a correct position that are otherwise rotating and tumbling so that bonds can form
enzymes that reversibly activate or inactivate other proteins by adding phosphate groups to (phosphorylating) them
After looking at the shape of graph the enzyme activity of this enzymes is being regulated by what variable:
After looking at the shape of graph the enzyme activity of this enzymes is being regulated by what variable:
The totality of an organism's chemical reaction
The study of how organisms manage their energy resources
Release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones i.e. Cellular respiration
Consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones i.e. Amino acids making up proteins
breaks down molecules, negative ΔG
Energy storing, Positive ΔG
builds larger products, Positive ΔG
ΔG = ΔH - TΔS
Equation for ΔG
Enthalpy aka system's total energy
Systems total entropy (disorder)
Adenine, ribose, phosphate group
ATP is composed of
Maintaining a stable internal environment
What happens if we have a decrease or disruption in energy?
hydrogen ion concentration, If H+ concentration is high, pH is low=acidic. If H+ concentration is low, pH is high= basic.
Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.
Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.
Laws of Thermodynamics
1) energy can not be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another, 2) each time you convert one form of energy to another, some energy is converted to a non-usable form (more energy efficient to consume plants because they exist very close to the initial source of energy)
A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.
light capturing complexes
pigments associated with proteins
electron carrier that provides high-energy electrons for photosynthesis
Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water. Light independent reactions of photosynthesis occur here.
a membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis. Where Light Dependent reactions occur.
redox reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions)
chemical reactions that transfer electrons between reactants
Spongy tissue in the interior of the leaf where most chloroplasts are found.
embedded in the protein complex in the thylakoid membrane, capture sunlight
A process in which carotenoids absorb and dissipate excessive light energy that would otherwise damage chlorophyll or interact with oxygen forming reactive oxidative molecules that are dangerous to the cell;
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
particles of light
Stacks of thalylakoids embedded in the stroma of a chloroplast
Significant metabolite in both the glycolytic pathway and the Calvin cycle; G3P is oxidized during glycolysis and reduced during the Calvin cycle.
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
plants close their stomata during the day, collect CO2 at night, and store the CO2 in the form of acids until it is needed during the day for photosynthesis
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
Respiration in the absence of oxygen. This produces lactic acid or alcohol.