payment made periodically by one state or ruler to another, especially as a sign of dependence.
With power inherited through female lines of authority.
is the worldview that non-human entities—such as animals, plants, and inanimate objects—possess a spiritual essence.
Where property and social identity descended in male family lines.
Forcing many young children to join the ranks of the roaming poor.
Farm workers who lived in small villages surrounded by fields farmed cooperatively by different families.
States that had no prince or king but instead were governed by merchant coalitions.
An ideology that praised public virtue and service to the state and in time profoundly influenced European and American conceptions of government.
The economic revolution that began in Italy spreads lowly to northern and Western Europe.
Organizations of workers in medieval and early modern Europe that regulated the entry into, and the practice of, a trade.
Grew out of Jewish monotheism, the belief in one God, held that Jesus Christ was himself divine.
Doctor ones that were inconsistent with the teaching of the church, were seen as tools of Satan, and suppressing false doctrines became an obligation of Christian rulers.
The religion whose followers considered Muhammad to be gods last prophet.
Took over by Christian armies to reverse the Muslim advance in Europe and win back the holy lands where Christ had lived.
The idea that God chooses certain people for salvation before they are born and condemns the rest to eternal damnation.
The reform movement that began in 1517 with Martin Luther critiques of the Roman Catholic Church and that precipitated an enduring schism that divided Protestants from Catholics.
A reformation in the Catholic Church triggered by the reformation that sought change from within and created new monastic and missionary orders including the Jesuits founded in 1540, who saw themselves as soldiers of christ.
The primary avenue of trade for west Africans before European traders connected them to the Atlantic world. Controlled in turn by the Ghana, Mali, and Songhai empires, it carried slaves and gold
The campaign by Spanish Catholics to drive North African moors Muslim Arabs, for the European mainland. After a centuries long effort to recover their lands the spa oars defeated the moors at granda in 1492 and secured control of all of Spain.
Indian from the Iroquois tribe who was one of two men who persuaded five nations to unite and work together as a group.
A German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. He led the Protestant Reformation.
Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Genoese mariner who in the service of Spain led expeditions across the Atlantic, reestablishing contact between the peoples of the Americas and the Old World and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Aztec emperor defeated and killed by the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil
a system of Bondage in which a slave has the legal status of property and so can be bought and sold like property.
Term for colonies in which colonists sought to replicate or at least approximate economics and social structures they knew at home.
A grant of Indian labor in Spanish America given in sixteenths century
The massive global Exchange of living things, including people, animals, plants, and diesease, between the East and western hemispheres that began after the voyages of Colombous.
A system of of manufacturing also known as putting out used extensively in the English wollen ndustry in the 16th and 17th centuries. Merchants bought wolld and then hired landless peaseants who lived in small cottages to spin and weave it into cloth, which the merchants would sell in English and foreign markets.
a system of political economy based on government regulation. Beggining in 1650, Britian enacted Navigation Acts that controlled colonial commerce and manufacturing for the enrichment of Britian.
House of Burgesses
Organ of government in colonial Virginia made up of an assembly of represenitives elected by the colonys inhabitants.
In the english system, a royal colony was chartered by the crown. the colnys governor was appointed by the crown and served according to the instruction of the board of trade.
Land owned in its entirety, without feudal dues or landlord obligations. Freeholders had the legal right to improve, transfer, or sell their landed property.
One of the first Protestant groups come to america, seeking a seperation from the Chruch of England. They founded Plymouth, the first community in New England, in 1620.
a system of land distribuion, pioneered in Virginia and used in several other colonies, that granted land usually 50 acres to anyone who paid the passage of a new arrival. Planters amassed huge landholdings as they imported large numbers of servants and slaves.
Workers contracted for service for a specified peroid. In exchange for agreeing to work for 4-5 years or more without wages in the colonies, they recieved passage across the Atlantic, room and board, and status as a free person at the end of the contract peroid.
Disenters from the Chruch of England who wanted a genuine Reformation rather than the partial Reformation sought by Henry VIII. The Purtians religous principles empasized the importance of an individuals relationship with god developed through bible study, prayer, and introspection.
a financial organization devised by English merchants around 1550, that faciliated the colonization of North America. in these companies, a number of investors polled their capital and recieved shares of stock in the enterprise in porportion to their share of the total investmant.
The Protestant Christian belief that god chooses certian people for salvation before they are born.
The allowance of different religios practices. Lord Baltimore persuaded the maryland assembly to enact the Toleration Act 1649, which granted all Christians the right to follow their beliefs and hold chruch services. The crown imposed toleration on Massachusetts Bay in its new royal charter of 1691.
Covenant of works
The christian idea that gods elect must do good works in their earthly lives to earn their salvation.
Covenant of Grace
The Christian idea that gods elect are granted salvation as a pure gift of grace. This doctrine holds nothing people do can erase their sins or earn them a place in heaven.
a system of local government in New England in which all male heads of households met regularly to elect selectmen, levy local taxes, and regulte markets, roads, and schools.
King Phillip II
In 1588, angered by English raids of Spanish raids on Central American settlements, this Spanish King ordered an Armada which was swiftly defeated and established England as a great power
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596).
Powhatan's brother who became the head of the native confederacy after Powhatan's death. He resumed the effort to defend tribal lands from European encroachments. Important because his attacks on the white settlers of Jamestown helped to end the Virginia Company and to begin the colony coming under the control of the English crown.
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south.
A Puritan woman who was well learned that disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and later took part in the formation of Rhode Island. She displayed the importance of questioning authority.
Aka King Philip, Native American ruler, who in 1675 led attack on colonial villages throughout Massachusetts.
A colony created through a grant of land from the English monarch to an individual or group who then set up a form of government largely independent from Royal control.
Epithet for members of the Society of friends.Their belief that God spoke directly to each individual through an inner light and that neither ministers not the bible was essential to discovering gods word put them in conflict with both the Church of England and orthodox puritans.
English laws passed in 1650's and 1660's requiring that certain English colonial goods be shipped through English ports on English ships manned by English sailors in order to benefit English merchants shippers, and seamen.
Dominion of New England
A royal province created by King James II in 1686 that would have absorbed Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts bay, Plymouth, New York, and New Jersey into a single vast colony and eliminated their assembles and other charted rights. James's plan was canceled by the glorious revolution in 1688 which removed him from the throne.
A quick and nearly bloodless coup in 1688 in which James II of England was overthrown by William of Orange. Whig politicians forced the new king William and queen Mary to accept the deceleration of rights, creating a constitutional monarchy that enhanced the powers of the House of Commons at the expense of the crown.
A monarchy limited by its rule by a constitution.
Second hundred years War
An era of warfare begginging with the war of the Leauge of Augsburg in 1689 and lasting until the defeat of Napolean at Waterloo in 1815. In that time, England fought in seven major wars the longest era of peace lasted only 26 years.
the adaptation of stateless peoples to the demands imposed on the by neibhoring states.
The alliance of the Iriquoiis first with the colony of New York then when the British empire and its other Colonies. The covenant chain became a model for relations between the British Empire and other Native American people.
South Atlantic System
A new agricultural and commercial order that produced sugar tobacco rice and other tropical and subtropical products for an international trade. It's plantation societies were ruled by European planter merchants and worked by hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans.
The brutal sea voyage from Africa to the Americas that took the lives of nearly 2 million enslaved Americans
The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.
A refined style of living and elaborate manners that came to be highly prized among well to do English families after 1600 and strongly influenced leading colonists after 1700.
refers to the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century British Crown policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws meant to keep American colonies obedient to England.
The power of elected officials to grant government jobs and favors to their supporters also the jobs and favors themselves.
An institution established by a colonial legislature that printed paper money and lent it to farmers taking a lein on their land to ensure repayment
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
was an English colonial administrator in North America. He was the governor of the Dominion of New England during most of its three-year existence. At other times, Andros served as governor of the provinces of New York, East and West Jersey, Virginia, and Maryland.
William of Orange
Leaders of the Whig party invited hiim a Prostant Prince, to come to England at the head of an invading army. Overthrew King James II in the Glorious Revolution by its supporters.
a political philospher, who made a lasting effect on America giving natural rights to live, liberty, and property. Where many political leaders wanted to expand powers of the colonial assembles.
had heavy handed tactics that made him vunerable, Henry Sloughter took over his place as govenor in 1691, and was indicted for treason, hanged, and decapitated for corrupting new York's politics for a generation.
William Byrd II
1674-1744, was asuccessful planter-merchant in Virginia, hoped to marry his children into the English Gentry. Sent his sons to England to furthur his educcation, and denied a post with the Board of Trade 3 times. He gave up, trying to get involved in English Gentry because the South was full of slaves. Used wealth to rule white yeomen families and tenant farmers.
Whig leader in the House of Commons from 1720-1742. He won parlimentary approval for his polocies. Filling the British Government the Board of Trade, and the colonial bureacuacy with do nothing hacks. Weakining the empire with patronage, the practice of giving offices and salaries to political allies, and high taxes threatining British liberties.
The rental of property. To attract tenants in New York's Hudson River Valley, Dutch and English manorial lords granted long tenancy leases, with the right to sell improvements houses and barns, to the next tenant.
The ability of a family to keep a household solvent and independent and to pass that ability on to the next generation.
Household mode of production
The system of exchanging goods and labor that helped 18th New England free holders survive on ever shrinking farms as available land became more scarce.
Someone who settles on land he or she does not own or rent. Many 18th century settlers established themselves on land before it was surveyed and entered for sale, requesting the first right to purchase he land when sales began.
A common type of indentured servant in the middle colonies
An intellectual movement of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries marked by a celebration of the powers of human reason, a keen interest in science, the promotion of religious toleration, and a desire to construct governments free of tyranny.
A Christian revival moment characterized by bible study the conversion experience and the individuals personal relationship with God.
Rights that people supposedly have under natural law. The Declaration of Independence of the United States lists life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
influenced by the spirit of rationalism, Desists believed that God, like a celestial clockmaker, had created a perfect universe and then had stepped back to let it operate according to natural laws.
The spark or renewal of a religious enthusiasm.
Conservative ministers opposed to the passion displayed by evangelical preachers they preferred to emphasize the importance of cultivating a virtuous Christian life.
Evangelical preachers, many of them influenced by John Wesley, the founder of English Methodism, and Geroge Whitefield, the charasmastic itenerant preacher who brought his message to britians Americans Colonies. They decreied a Christian Faith that was merely intellectual and emphazised the importance of a spiritual rebirth.
An increase in consumption in English manufactures in Britian and the British coloneis fueled by the Industrial Revolution. Although the consumer revolutipm raised living standards, it landed many consumers and the colonies as a whole in debt.
Landowning protestors who organized in North and South Carolina in the 1760'd and 1770's to demand that the eastern controlled government provide western districts with more courts, fairer taxation, and greater representation in the assembly.
Used math and science in 1687 to explain the movement of the planets around the sun and inventing calculus in the process.
this man was a writer during the reign of William and Mary. he wrote the 2 treatises of government. divine right of kings v. life, liberty and property. had 2 main points. 1) people in their regular state without government are in chaos. 2) said not one head of state rather unalienable rights and contractual agreement.
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
an american theologian and congregational clergyman whose sermons stirred the religious revival called the GREAT AWAKENING known for siners in the hands of an angry god sermon.
One of the preachers of the great awakening (key figure of "New Light"); known for his talented voice inflection and ability to bring many a person to their knees.
half king as well as Scarouady, the Iriquois sent these two native leaders to maintain influence on Ohio. They went to the native settlement of Logstown, a trading town in northern Ohio, Britian recognizing them as leaders.
A archietect and master strategist planned to criple France by seizing its colonies. Paying 1 million pounds a year for equipment and armory.
the Owatta Chief, led an uprising in Detroit, indians in the Great lakes and Ohio valley regions nearly seized every British military garrison and killed or captured more than 2,000 settlers.