Biochemistry Review

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27 Terms
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Chemistry of living things
Organic Compounds
compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen, Examples are: sugars, proteins, DNA/RNA, lipids, fats
Inorganic Compounds
Do not contain carbon and hydrogen. Examples are: water, salts, acids, bases, minerals, CO2
Chemical Reaction
(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
Broken down to glucose to provide quick energy. Examples include: starches, sugar, glucose, monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They provide long-term energy, mostly make up cell membranes, and provide insulation
Nucleic Acid
A biological macromolecule (DNA or RNA) that carries genetic information. Contains instruction cells needed to carry out their life processes.
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells. Examples are: enzymes, hormones, and antibodies
Amino Acid
Building blocks of protein
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing. They are proteins that act as biological catalysts.
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
A substance produced in a chemical reaction
A chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction. They are usually on the left side of an equation.
something that brings about a change in something else. AKA an ENZYME
A change in the shape of a protein (such as an enzyme) that can be caused by changes in temperature or pH (among other things).
Mono (monosaccharide)
one simple sugar
di- (disaccharide)
Two simple sugars
poly (saccharides)
many sugars
Dehyrdration Synthesis
To make or build a larger molecules (take out water)
Hydrolysis (digestion)
To break apart large molecules into smaller molecules (add water)
Proteins have many functions because...
they can have many different shapes.
Changing the shape of an enzyme (protein) means that it...
will no longer function as the same thing.
Factors that may change the shape of an enzyme (protein) are...
high temperatures and a strong acid or base.
Enzymes are needed for all...
chemical reactions in a cell, in the body.
Name the organic molecules that make up all living cells (macromolecules)
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids
a large carbohydrate made up of many small sugar (glucose) molecules
building block of carbohydrates