AP World- Chapter 10 Review

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14 Terms
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Byzantine empire
Term used by moder historians to refer to the surviving eastern Roman empire during the medieval centuries; named after the ancient Greek city Byzantium, on the sit of which the Roman emperor Constantine founded a new capital, Constantinope, in 330 CE
A political-religious system in which the secular ruler is also head of the religous establishment, as in the Byzantine empire
Ruler of the Carolingian Empire (r. 768-814) who staged an imperial revival in Western Europe
Christianity, Eastern Orthodox
Branch of Christianity that developed in the eastern part of the Roman empire and gradually separated, mostly on matters of practice, from the branch of Christianity dominant in Western Europe; noted for the subordination of the Church to political authorities, a married clergy, the use of leavened bread in the Eucharist, and insistence on church councils as the ultimate authority in Chrisitian belief and practice
Christianity, Roman Catholic
Western Europe branch of Chrisitanity that gradually defined itself as separate from Eastern Orthodoxy, with a major break in 1054 CE, that has still not been healed; "Roman Catholic" was no ocmmonly used until after the Protestant Reformation, but the terms is just snce, by the 11th century, Western Christendom defined itself in centralized terms, with the bishop of Rome (the pope) as the ultimate authority in matters of doctrine
New capital for the easter half of the Roman Empire, established by Emperor Constantine in 330 CE, on the site of the ancient Greek city of Byzantium; Cosntantitople's highly defensible and economically important site helped assure the city's cultural and strategic importance for many centuries
Modern term meaning "ventures of the cross," used to describes the "holy wars" waged by Western Christendom from 1095 until the end of the Middle Ages and beyond; Crusades could only be declared by the pope and were marked by participants searing a vow and receiving on indulgence in return
Alphabet based on Greek letters that was developed by two byzantine missionaries, Cyril and Methodius, to write Slavic languages
Greek Fire
Form of liquid fire that could be sprayed at the enemy; invented by the Byzantines and very important in their efforts to halt the Arab advance into Byzantine territory
An association formed by peoople pursuing the same line of work that regulated their professions; it also provided a social and religious network for members
Holy Roman Empire
Term invented in the 12th century to describe the Germany-based empire founded by Otto I in 962 CE
Kievan Rus
State that emerged around the city of Kiev in the 9th century CE; a culturally diverse region that included Vikings as well as Finnic and Baltic peoples; the conversion of Vladiir, the grand prince of Kiev, to Orthodox Christianity in 988 had long-term implications for Russia
Scandinavian raiders who had an impact on much of Western Europe in the late 8th to 11th centuries;their more peaceful cousins also founded colonies, including Newfoundland, Greenland, and Iceland
Vladimir, prince of Kiev
Grand Prince of Kiev (r. 978-1015) who conversion to Orthodox Christianity led to the incorporation of Russia into the sphere of Eastern Orthodoxy