Hist010 - Asian American History Midterm

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In the ‘The Chinese Lady’ engraving, where she seems like and object on the stage. Seen as an  accessible/contained means for white people to watch and pretend they understand culture and difference. Own name is unknown - ‘Afong’ is not a name, but an informal title. One of the first Chinese women to arrive in the United States. Minimal information about her is known. Used to sensationalise the East.
Restricted immigration area from the 1917 Asiatic Barred Zone Act. Starts to exclude people who weren’t necessarily Asian - included literacy tests that also applied to European immigrants - goal to keep out undesirables.
Bhagat Singh Thind v. United States; Punjabi Sikh who immigrated to US in 1913, joined US army in 1917, and was honourably discharged in 1918. In 1920 applied for naturalised citizenship which was initially approved, then appealed bc he’s not white. He argued he was “Aryan” because of his high-caste Indian status, and thus Caucasian and white. The court  ruled "Aryan” was a linguistic, not a racially stable, classification; “common sense” dictated that Asian Indians were not white. As he’s not white, he’s not eligible for citizenship.
Encapsulates racialisation of proletarian labour through creation of coolie labour. Seen in a lithograph that shows a white worker’s family deteriorating (drunk, prostitute, thievery) with a prosperous building with stereotyped names and caricatures of Chinese people. Call to Irish people to join white working class movement against Chinese workers. Concept of what white workers believed the consequences of coolieism were.
First ship that was participating in the US/China trade (a year after the US declared its independence/revolutionary war ended). New country was in a lot of debt, and was trying to compensate by selling to China and collecting customs on trade from China.
Mother of Mamie Tape. She was a Chinese American woman, and one of the first Asian Americans to challenge school segregation. Her child was excluded from attending a white school in San Francisco. Tape v. Hurley.
The queen of Hawaii, deposed in an 1893 coup after she tried to make a new constitution replacing the Bayonet Constitution and restoring political power and votes to native hawaiians. She worked to fight annexation by the U.S., restore the power of the monarchy, and reclaim voting rights for her people using nonviolent forms of resistance such as appealing to the laws of the Bayonet Constitution. Most histories of the annexation focused on the accounts of the perpetrators of the coup and English language newspapers, framing her as incompetent using black steryotypes, and minimizing her resistance.
Takao Ozawa v. United States (1922). Ozawa was a Japanese immigrant who applied for naturalized U.S. citizenship in 1914. He was rejected because he was not “white” or of “African descent.” He argued that he was white, because of his light complexion, the length of his US residency, the fact that his wife was educated in the US, and his Christianity but the court ruled that “white” is “what is popularly known as the Caucaisian race,” and that Japanese immigrants were “clearly of a race which is not Caucaisian” and therefore ineligible for citizenship.
The United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898) codified birthright citizenship, even if parents were immigrants. Ark was born in SF to Chinese immigrant parents, who could not be naturalized (1790 Naturalization Act only granted that right to “free white persons” and 1870 extended citizenship to people of African descent). Wong took his case to the Supreme Court when he was returning from a trip to China and was denied entry based on the assumption that he was not a citizen.