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Unit 3 Exam - Honors Chemistry

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32 Terms
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Atomic Radius
The distance between an atom's nucleus and other electron shell
Atomic Radius Trends
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Molecular vs Ionic Compounds
Molecular - nometal + nonmetal (covalent bond) - prefixes Ionic - Metal + nonmetal (held together by electrostatic forces, cation + anion) - no prefixes
Electronegativity
measure of the ability of an atom's nucleus to attract electrons from a different atoms within a covalent bond
Electronegativity Trends
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Ionization Energy
amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom
Ionization Energy Trends
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Types of elements
metals nonmetals metalloids - elements with physical and chemical properties of both metals and non-metals
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Valence electrons
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Diatomic
consisting of two atoms
which elements are diatomic?
Hydrogen. Nitrogen. Oxygen. Fluorine. Chlorine. Bromine. Iodine
How do you know if a compound is polar or nonpolar?
Polar molecules are asymmetric, either containing lone pairs of electrons on a central atom or having atoms with different electronegativities bonded
Formula for each molecular compound a. sulfur dioxide b. carbon tetraflouride c. disphosphorous pentoxide
a. SO₂ b. CF₄ c. P₂O5
Molecular Compounds Prefixes and Suffixes
Prefixes 1- mono 2- di 3- tri 4- tetra 5- penta 6- hexa 7- hepta 8- octa, 9- nona 10- deca Suffix -ide
Why does a metal form a positive ion with bonding?
Metals tend to form positive (+ charged) ions because they have low numbers of valence electrons, which they can lose easily
Give the formula for each of the following ionic compounds a. calcium iodide b. copper(II) chloride c. ammonium sulfate
a. CaI₂ b. CuCl₂ b.(NH₄)₂SO₄
Families and Groups
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Covalent bond
A covalent bond consists of the mutual sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between two atoms
What is the strongest and weakest type of covalent bond?
Strongest - triple bond Weakest - single bond
Formula for Carbon Tetrachloride
CCl4
Formula for Calcium chloride
CaCl2
Nomenclature for dinitrogen dioxide
N2O2
Which element is more elctronegative? K, Ca, As, Br, Kr
Br
Which has the largest radii? K, Ca, As, Br, Kr
K
Which element is the lowest electronegativity? K, Ca, As, Br, Kr
Kr ** noble gases do not have electronegativity
Lewis Dot Structure for CO2
- 16 valence electrons - steric number of 2 - linear shape - no lone pairs - nonpolar
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Lewis Dot Structure for H20
- 8 valence electrons - steric number of 4 - bent shape - 2 lone pairs - polar
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Lewis Dot Structure for NH3
- 8 valence electrons - steric number of 4 - pyramid shape - one lone pairs - polar
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Polarity
polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole moment, with a negatively charged end and a positively charged end
Stallion Starter: a. How many e do haolgens exchange when obtaining a noble has config.? b. How many e do alkaline earth exchange when obtaining a noble gas config.? c. How many e do alkali exchange when ionizing?
a. +1 b. -2 c. +1
steric number
The number of atoms, groups, or lone pairs around a central atom
lone pairs
pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atom in a covalent bond