Bio Test 2

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five different supergroups
the most widely accepted formal classification assigns them to
All of these apply
which of the characteristics apply to the supergroup Archaeplastida?
malaria - an amebozoan
which disease is incorrectly matched with the causative agent?
______ is a mixotrophic protozoan that is able to combine autotrophic and heterotrophic nutritional modes.
cyst - a reproductive structure
Which protistan structure is not correctly matched with its function?
which is NOT a feature found in protozoans?
mitochondria and plastids
which organelles serve as the energy centers for most protists?
sporozoan - pellicle
which of the following protists is incorrectly matched with its form of locomotion?
is most commonly asexual by mitosis
Protists reproduction
This name of the filamentous algae pictured here, belonging to the supergroup Archaeplastida, is
Which of the following alga is mismatched with its description?
DNA sequencing suggests that among the green algae, the _____ are most closely related to land plants.
red algae
the members of the supergroup Archaeplastida that have cell walls impregnated with calcium carbonate and help build coral reefs are the
"red rides" are produced by massive blooms of
the presence of a light-trapping pigment
which feature has to be present in a protist in order to classify it as a photoautotroph?
The deposits of chalky fossils that build the White Cliffs of Dover were formed by
the opisthokonts include all of the following organisms EXCEPT
which definition would best describe the mode of nutrition of Euglena?
diplomonads, euglenids and parabasalids
which of the following organisms belong to the supergroup Excavata?
A flagellated protist that is sexually transmitted is
Eukaryotic cells acquired mitochondria and plastids by engulfing free-living bacteria and developed a symbiotic relationship with them. Mitochondria were derived from aerobic bacterium while chloroplasts were derived from cyanobacterium.
Which description best supports the endosymbiotic theory of organelles?
plasmodial and cellular slime molds
Which of the following organisms belong to the supergroup Amoebozoa?
All of these characteristics distinguish slime molds from fungi.
Slime molds were once classified as fungi. What characteristics of the slime molds distinguish them from fungi?
prokaryotes evolved when an aerobic bacterium engulfed a cyanobacterium.
The endosymbiont hypothesis proposes all of the following EXCEPT
All of these actions would help reduce the potential for human exposure to a "red tide."
If a public health official was trying to reduce the potential for human exposure to a "red tide," which of the following actions would they take?
Giardia lamblia—malaria
Which of the following protozoans is mismatched with the disease that it causes?
All of these scenarios would have a chance of success in preventing malaria from spreading throughout the southern Everglades.
Imagine you are working for the Florida Public Health Department and you have been assigned the task of preventing malaria from spreading throughout the southern Everglades. Which of the following scenarios would have a chance of success?
Entamoeba histolytica.
A common cause of amoebic dysentery is
ingesting contaminated water or food.
Amoebic dysentery is transmitted by (through)
mosquito; humans
In Plasmodium, sexual reproduction occurs in the _____, while asexual reproduction occurs in _____.
Diatoms share a more recent common ancestor with dinoflagellates than with water molds.
alveolates & stramenopiles
Based on the evolutionary tree shown, which of the following pairs of protists are most closely related?
The term "protist" is used to refer to a eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus.
The reason biologists believe that green algae and land plants, both members of the supergroup Archaeplastida, are related is because both of them possess chlorophyll a and b, as well as cell walls made of starch.
It is believed that eukaryotes evolved their mitochondria from a symbiotic relationship with a free-living aerobic bacteria.
Brown algae that live along the rocky shores of the north temperate zones are able to withstand pounding tides and drying because of their holdfasts and the water-retaining material in their cell walls.
Each time a diatom reproduces sexually, the size of the daughter cells decreases until diatoms are about 30% of their original size. At this point, they begin to reproduce asexually.
Water molds are heterotrophic because they are parasitic on fish, plants, and insects.
The 1840s Irish potato famine was caused by a water mold parasite on potatoes.
cup fungus / Glomeromycota
Which of the following fungi/Phylum associations is incorrect?
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which reproduces asexually through the production of zoospores, recently destroyed populations of harlequin frogs in Central and South America. It is a member of which phylum of fungi?
You are studying a newly discovered fungus and find an area of a hyphae that contains cells with two nuclei. You should classify these cells as diploid.
They are limited to only asexual reproduction.
Which of the following does NOT describe phylum Ascomycota?
Which of the following does NOT describe phylum Ascomycota?
The current hypothesis about fungal evolution suggests that Basidiomycota and Ascomycota are more closely related than Ascomycota and Glomeromycota.
The current hypothesis about fungal evolution suggests that Microsporidia are most distantly related to Neocallimastigomycota.
Fungi and animals share a more recent common ancestor than do fungi and plants.
Which of the following spores is the result of asexual reproduction?
Which of the following structures are NOT involved in sexual reproduction?
strep throat (pharyngitis)
Fungal diseases include all of the following EXCEPT
The energy reserve of fungi is starch while the energy reserve of animals is glycogen.
In differentiating fungi from plants and animals, which of the following statements is NOT true?
determined by whether the hyphae have cross walls or lack cross walls.
The difference between septate hyphae and aseptate hyphae is
contain paired haploid nuclei that fail to fuse for an extended period of time.
Dikaryotic cells of fungi
heterotrophic & consume preformed organic matter
Which of the following traits are found in both fungi and animals?
One of the long, branching filaments that collectively make up the mycelium of a fungus is called a(n)
A mushroom would produce a sexual spore known as a(n)
a possible controlled parasitism wherein the fungi withdraw food from the algae and the algae do not benefit from the association
The relationship between the fungi and algae in lichens is best described as
The parasitic sac fungus that grows on rye and other grains and contains the hallucinogenic chemical lysergic acid is
A sexual spore produced by a sac fungus is called a(n)
An asexual spore produced by a sac fungus or club fungus is called a(n)
The presence of _____ indicates that the air is healthy for humans to breathe.
When the cap of an average gilled mushroom is cut off and placed on paper, a spoke-like print eventually appears on the paper under the cap. This powdery material would be
rusts and smuts.
The fungi that parasitize cereal crops such as corn, wheat, oats, and rye are the
rusts and smuts—truffles
Which is NOT a correct association of a fungus and product?
Crustose, fruticose, and foliose are varieties of
None are mismatched. They are all correctly matched.
Which of the fungal groups is mismatched with the asexual spore produced?
sac fungi
Species of _____ are known to decompose jet fuel and wall paint.
All of the choices are correct.
A and C are correct. (fungi may enter... and the presence of the fungi...)
Which of the following statements about mycorrhizae is/are true?
Mycorrhizal sac fungi that live in association with oak and beech tree roots are
fungal and human cells are so similar that it is difficult to make fungal medications that do not harm human cells.
Fungal infections are difficult to treat because
Poisonous or physiologically active chemicals found in various fungi include all of the following EXCEPT
Molecular data shows a similarity in DNA/RNA base sequences.
Which of the following information provides the strongest evidence to support the evolutionary relatedness between fungi and animals?
The nutrients produced from the photosynthetic cyanobacteria would no longer be available for the fungal cells.
Determine which of the following scenarios would be most likely to occur if the cyanobacteria was removed from a lichen.
Fungi are thought to have been the first kind of eukaryotic cells that evolved.
The part of a mushroom that we eat is usually the reproductive structure that supports the fruiting body.
A normal inhabitant of the vaginal tract that causes "yeast infections" under certain circumstances is Saccharomyces.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi invade plant roots, with many species forming mutualistic associations that benefit both the fungus and the plant.
Penicillium is a club fungus that is used to make beer and wine.
The vast majority of fungi are multicellular organisms that are composed of a mycelium as well as individual hyphae. Chitin is a structural carbohydrate that makes up the cell wall of fungi
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the structural components of fungi?
A mycorrhiza is a mutualistic relationship between fungi and the roots of most plants.
Which of the following statements describes mycorrhizae?
Mycorrhizae are a mutualistic relationship between fungi and algae in which the algae takes advantage of the fungi.
The ancestor was a flagellated organism that lived in some type of aquatic environment. It was most likely a unicellular protist.
Which statement is the most likely description of the common ancestor that exists between fungi and animals?
Which of the following traits is NOT found in both fungi and animals?
a - d - b - e - c
What is the correct order of reproduction in members of phylum Zygomycota? a. Hyphae of opposite mating strains touch each other. b. Gametangia merge, nuclei pair and fuse. c. Spores are released from the sporangium. d. Gametangia form at the end of the hyphae. e. A thick wall develops around the zygospore.
a - b - f - c - d - g - e
What is the correct order of reproduction in members of phylum Basidiomycota? a. Cytoplasmic fusion results in a dikaryotic mycelium. b. The mycelium produces basidiocarps. c. Nuclear fusion produces a diploid nucleus. d. Meiosis produces basidiospores. e. Spores germinate into haploid hyphae. f. Basidia develop on the gills of the mushroom. g. Basidiospores are released.
Based upon the current evolutionary tree, which of the following groups would have the closest evolutionary relatedness to the fungi?
pollen cone
Which of the following is a male reproductive structure found in plants?
fern and gymnosperm
Which of the following is a nonvascular plant? Select all that apply.
All of the following structures are associated with lycophytes EXCEPT
waxy cuticle on roots to prevent drying out
Which of the following is NOT an adaptation of plants to life on land?
there was an increased threat from predation by animals.
As plants invaded the land, all of the following were true EXCEPT
Molecular data suggests that land plants evolved from
In the alternation of generations life cycle of plants, gametes are produced by the
triploid gametes
Which of the following is NOT part of an alternation of generations life cycle?
haploid gametophyte
In the moss life cycle, the _____ is the dominant generation.
are in the same clade and form a monophyletic group.
Molecular data shows that land plants and charophytes
protection of the embryo
Which of the following is a trait that evolved in ALL land plants?
the production of seeds.
A characteristic only shared by angiosperms and gymnosperms is
A characteristic of land plants is the presence of small openings, found mostly on the underside of leaves, that allow gas exchange between the plant and its environment. These structures are called
When a moss spore lands on an appropriate site, it germinates into the first stage of the gametophyte called a(n)
the presence of branches
Identify the feature found in Cooksonia that qualifies it as a vascular plant.
The first fossil evidence of vascular tissue is seen in the
diploid sporophyte; fern frond
The fiddlehead is a _____ that unfolds into a _____.
Spores released from the underside of the frond germinated on the peat plug and formed the gametophyte called a prothallus.
It is possible to take a mature fern frond and rub the circular brown growths on the lower surface over a wet plug of peat moss. Soon small heart-shaped green structures grow on the nutritious peat moss plugs. What has happened?
diploid sporophyte
In the fern life cycle, the _____ generation is dominant.
The sperm is carried by the wind to the egg.
Which of these statements is NOT true about fertilization in a fern plant?
Which of these vascular plants produce seeds?
male gametophyte.
A microspore develops into a(n)
Gymnosperms are characterized by producing "naked seeds." Which of the following groups is NOT classified as a gymnosperm?
seed cones are located near the tips of higher branches and pollen cones develop near the tips of lower branches.
In the pine life cycle
Molecular data suggest that mosses, hornworts, and liverworts have individual lines of descent, but that they form a monophyletic group.
vascular bundles arranged irregularly in the stem.
Characteristics of eudicots include all EXCEPT
sporophyte; gametophyte
In gymnosperms and angiosperms, seeds disperse the _____ stage of the life cycle and in mosses and ferns, spores disperse the _____ stage of the life cycle.
The first plants to colonize land were the
Flagellated sperm and a sporophyte that is dependent on the gametophyte are characteristics of
plants and green algae share a significant number of structural similarities in root, stem, and leaf structures.
Evidence for the evolution of plants from a freshwater algal species is supported by all of the following EXCEPT:
the switch to chlorophyll as the primary photosynthetic pigment.
All of the following are milestones in the evolution of plants EXCEPT
Identify the species that is NOT classified as a pteridophyte.
the evolution of photosynthesis in order to supply the energy necessary to live on land
Which of the following is NOT an adaptation of plants to a terrestrial environment?
the detachment of gemmae.
Asexual reproduction in the liverwort Marchantia is by means of
they are now the most abundant plant group on land.
All of the following are true about bryophytes EXCEPT
Seedless vascular plants include all of the following EXCEPT
All of the answer choices apply to megaphylls.
Which of the following descriptions applies to megaphylls?
The dominant plants in modern times are the _____ due to their relationship with animal pollinators.
Horsetails are generally found in dry, sandy environments.
Fossils of vascular plants appear earlier in the fossil record than those of algae.
The gymnosperms produce seeds that are enclosed within a fruit.
The largest and oldest trees in the world that are pollinated by animals are conifers.
Angiosperms are referred to as _____ when the male and female reproductive parts are on different individuals of the same species.
Which of the following features would NOT be found in bryophytes?
Which portion of the plant life cycle is haploid?
a cuticle
Which of the following features would have helped early plant ancestors evolve to a terrestrial existence?
dispersal of gametes by wind
Which of the following features would disqualify a plant from being classified as a bryophyte?
a - e - c - d - b - f
What is the correct sequence of events during the life cycle of a moss? a. Gametes are produced in the archegonia and antheridia. b. Spores are released. c. The zygote develops within the archegonium. d. The mature sporophyte develops from the gametophyte and produces spores. e. Flagellated sperm swim towards the egg for fertilization. f. Spore germinates into the protonema.
The megaspores will develop into female gametophytes.
Which of the following statements about lycophytes is correct?
Which of the following groups of plants contain microphylls?
Which group of gymnosperms is represented by only one surviving species?
The reproductive structures of some cycad species produce nectar, and insects play a role in the pollination of these species.
Which group of gymnosperms is found in tropical and subtropical forests?
As a botanist working for a field museum, you spend many hours in the field looking for new species of plant. On a recent trip, you came across a group of plants that may represent a new species. Each plant has seeds but they are not encased in fruit. Additionally, you notice that male and female cone structures are found on different plants. The cones are very large, and you determine average weight to be 30 kg. In which of the following groups would this plant most likely be classified?
As a botanist working for a field museum, you spend many hours in the field looking for new species. On a recent trip you may have discovered a new plant species. Your observations of the new plant include small leaves with a single, unbranched vein and roots that seem to be simple extensions of the stem. Your new plant species is probably a(n):
As a botanist working for a field museum, you spend many hours in the field looking for new species. On a recent trip you may have discovered a new plant species. The plant is very short, and has a stem but no roots or leaves. The stem forks and has branches that have sporangia on the tips. Further analysis reveals vascular tissue. What type of plant might you have discovered?
mode of reproduction.
Animals are classified according to all of the following features EXCEPT
All of the choices are correct.
Bilaterally symmetrical animals
The adult form is diploid in an alternation of generation life cycle.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all animals?
Bilaterally symmetric animals are usually sessile.
Which statement concerning body symmetry is NOT correct?