AP HUG Unit 1 Vocab

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132 Terms
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Absolute distance
A distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or kilometer
Absolute location
The exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system.
The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
To come together into a mass, sum, or whole
Human-induced changes on the natural environment
Azimuthal Projection
A map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface
Breaking point
The outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supplies
A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
The theory and practice of making visual representations of Earth's surface in the form of maps.
Choropleth Map
A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area
Cognitive Map
An image of a portion of Earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her mind. Cognitive maps can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships among locations as well as personal perceptions and preferences of particular places
The actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions
The degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
Contagious diffusion
The spread of a disease, an innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place
Coordinate system
A standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and longitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on Earth's surface
cultural ecology (nature-society geography)
The study of interactions between societies and the natural environments in which they live
Cultural landscape
The human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society
Distance Decay Effect
The decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases
Dot maps
Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births
Earth system science
A systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between Earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale.
Environmental Geography
The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa.
The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography."
Expansion Diffusion
The spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange.
Fertile Crescent
The name given to the crescent-shaped area of fertile land stretching from the lower Nile Valley along the east Mediterranean coast and into Syria and present-day Iraq where agriculture & early civilization began about 8,000 BCE
Formal Region
Definition of regions based on common themes such as similarities in language, climate, land use, etc.
Friction of distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.
Fuller Projection
A type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions--north, south, east, and west--no longer have any meaning.
Functional Region
Definition of regions based on common interaction (or function), for example, a boundary line drawn around the circulation of a particular newspaper.
Geographic Information System (GIS)
A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data.
Geographic Scale
The scale at which a geographer analyzes a particular phenomenon, for example: global, national, census, tract, neighborhood, etc. Generally, the finer the scale of analysis, the richer the level of detail in the findings.
The actual shape of Earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed. Earth's diameter is longer around the equator than along the north-south meridians.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
A set of satellites used to help determine location anywhere on Earth's surface with a portable electronic device.
Gravity Model
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.
Hierarchical Diffusion
A type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of a physical or cultural community between those places.
Human Geography
The study of the spatial variation in the patterns and processes related to human activity.
Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place
International Date Line
the line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian
intervening opportunities
If one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, the supplier closer to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the third from being able to share its supply of goods or services. Intervening opportunities are frequently used because transportation costs usually decrease with proximity.
A map line that connects points of equal or very similar values.
Large scale
A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. Large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps.
The angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by lines of latitude or parallels
law of retail gravitation
A law stating that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business since larger cities have a wider influence on the surrounding hinterlands.
Location Charts
On a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information about a particular political unit or jurisdiction.
The angular distance east or west of the Prime Meridian, defined by lines or longitude, or meridians
Map projection
A mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. This term can also be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting. All map projections have distortions in either area, direction, distance, or shape.
Map scale
The ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface.
George Perkins Marsh
An inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, "Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action," provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.
Mercator Projection
A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. Mercator projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized.
A line of longitude that runs north-south. All lines of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles.
Natural landscape
The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities.
Concepts or rules that can be applied universally.
An east-west line of latitude that runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator.
W. D. Pattison
He claimed that geography drew from four distinct traditions: the earth-science tradition, the culture-environment tradition, the locational tradition, and the area-analysis tradition.
Perceptual region
Highly individualized definition of regions based on perceived commonalities in culture and landscape.
Peters Projection
An equal-area projection purposely centered on Africa in an attempt to treat all regions of Earth equally.
Physical Geography
The realm of geography that studies the structures, processes, distributions, and changes through time of the natural phenomena of Earth's surface.
Preference Map
A map that displays individual preferences for certain places.
Prime Meridian
An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, which marks the 0° line of longitude.
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
Proportional Symbol Map
A thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region
Roman geographer-astronomer and author of Guide to Geography which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude.
Qualitative data
Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives.
Quantitative data
Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association.
Quantitative revolution
A period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques.
Reference map
A map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigation.
A territory that encompasses many places that share similar physical and/or cultural attributes.
Regional Geography
The study of geographic regions.
Relative distance
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic, connectivity between two places.
Relative location
The position of a place in relation to another place
Relocation diffusion
The diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and so on from one place to another through migration.
Remote sensing
The observation and mathematical measurement of Earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include photographic images, thermal images, multispectral images, and radar images
A map's smallest discernible unit. If, for example, an object has to be one kilometer long in order to show up on a map, the map's resolution is one kilometer
Robinson Projection
Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.
Carl Sauer
Geographer from the University of California at Berkley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. This landscape results from the interaction between humans and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no landscape has escaped alteration by human activities.
Sense of place
Feelings evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place.
The absolute location of a place, described by a local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics.
The relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context.
Small scale
A map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on Earth is quite small. Small-scale maps usually depict large areas.
spatial diffusion
The ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of disease, travel over space.
Spatial Perspective
An intellectual framework that looks at the particular locations of a specific phenomenon, how and why that phenomenon is where it is, and finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other places.
The concept of using Earth's resources in such a way that they provide for people's needs in the present without diminishing the ability to provide for future generations
Thematic Layers
Individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in a Geographical Information System to understand and analyze a spatial relationship.
Time-space convergence
The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction among those places
Topographic maps
Maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations. If you took a topographic map out into the field and walked exactly along the path of an isoline on your map, you would always stay at the same elevation.
The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
Use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three dimensional or interactive.
Age-sex distribution
a model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid
Arithmetic density
The number of people living in a given unit area.
Baby boom
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
Baby bust
Period of time during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates in the United States dropped as large numbers of women from the baby boom generation sought higher levels of education and more competitive jobs, causing them to marry later in life. As such, the fertility rate dropped considerably, in contrast to the baby boom, in which fertility rates were quite high.
Carrying capacity
The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support.
Census tract
Small county subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the U.S. Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
Chain migration
The migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family members to an existing community.
Child mortality rate
Number of deaths per thousand children within the first five years of life.
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
Cotton belt
The term by which the American South used to be known, as cotton historically dominated the agricultural economy of the region. The same area is now known as the New South or Sun Belt because people have migrated here from older cities in the industrial north for a better climate and new job opportunities.
Crude birth rate
The number of live births per year per 1,000 people.
Crude death rate
The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
Demographic accounting equation
An equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population within a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration.
Demographic transition model
A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
The study of human populations, including their temporal and spatial dynamics.
Dependency ratio
The ratio of the number of people who are either too old or young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their own labor. This is usually expressed in the form of n:100, where n equals the number of dependents.
Doubling time
Time period required for a population experiencing exponential growth to double in size completely.
The process of moving out of a particular country, usually the individual person's country of origin.
Exponential growth
Growth that occurs when a fixed percentage of new people is added to a population each year. Exponential growth is compound because the fixed growth rate applies to an ever-increasing population.
Forced migration
The migration event in which individuals are forced to leave a country against their will.
Generation X
A term coined by artist and author Douglas Coupland to describe people born in the United States between the years 1965 and 1980. This post-baby-boom generation will have to support the baby boom cohort as they head into their retirement years.
a division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.
The process of individuals moving into a new country with the intentions of remaining there.
Infant mortality rate
The percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country.
Internal migration
The permanent or semipermanent movement of individuals within a particular country.
Intervening obstacles
Any forces or factors that may limit human migration.
Involuntary migration
Same as forced migration. The migration event in which individuals are forced to leave a country against their will.
Life expectancy
The average age individuals are expected to live, which varies across space, between genders, and even between races
Thomas Malthus
Author of Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically, and thereby that, eventually, population growth would outpace food production.
Maternal mortality rate
Number of deaths per thousand of women giving birth.
A long-term move of a person from one political jurisdiction to another.
Natural increase rate
The difference between the number of births and number of deaths within a particular country.
Advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations.
A value judgement based on the notion that the resources of a particular area are not great enough to support that area's current population.
Physiological density
A ratio of human population to the area of cropland, used in less developed countries dominated by subsistence agriculture.
Population density
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
Population geography
A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.
Population pyramid
A model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population.
Pull factors
Attractions that draw migrants to a certain place, such as a pleasant climate and employment or educational opportunities.
Push factors
Incentives for potential migrants to leave a place, such as a harsh climate, economic recession, or political turmoil.
People who leave their home because they are forced out, but not because they are being officially relocated or enslaved.
Rust belt
The northern industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate.
Sun belt
U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II.
Total fertility rate
The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.
Voluntary migration
Movement of an individual who consciously and voluntarily decides to locate to a new area- the opposite of forced migration
Zero population growth
Proposal to end population growth through a variety of official and nongovernmental family planning programs.