General Ecology 3130 Exam One

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41 Terms
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a field of scientific study of the processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms and the interactions among organisms
the location of organisms
the number of individuals present at a particular time and place
actions or behaviors among individuals or between an individual and its environment
Abiotic Factors
nonliving elements of an ecosystem
Biotic Factors
living elements of an ecosystem
a set of ethics and beliefs that is verified through affirmation
Organizational Hierarchy
a system of grouping organisms in a nested order genes > individuals > populations > communities > ecosystems > biosphere
Why is Ecology done?
identify patterns in the distribution and abundance of organisms, understand the mechanisms that produce observed patterns, and predict responses to natural and manmade environmental change
Observation / Natural Experimentation
a method of ecological research that examines variation in some pattern or process across a naturally existing gradient of interest - factors not influenced by the researchers involved represents natural system dynamics but lacks true control and cannot establish causation
Manipulative Experimentation
a method of ecological research in which researchers place experimentally-induced variations in a lab or field setting limits confounding and is capable of establishing causation
Models and Simulations
a method of ecological research that uses conceptual and mathematical representations of ecological relationships useful for generating hypotheses but is often an oversimplification of reality and cannot establish causation
Additional factors of an experiment that are not accounted for that may be affecting experiment results
Continuous Variables
variables that can be expressed numerically
Categorical Variables
variables that can be expressed in groups
When to use Correlation or Regression Tests
in scatter plots comparing two continuous variables
When to use T-Tests or ANOVA Tests
in bar graphs comparing a continuous and categorical variable
Does correlation show causation?
Independent Variable
the naturally existing or experimentally-induced difference in experimental units
Dependent Variable
the measured response to differences in naturally existing or experimentally-induced differences in experimental units
Experimental Unit
the smallest repetitive unit in which data is being measured from
changes in the composition of a population from one generation to the next
Common Garden Experiment
subjects are removed from their natural habitats and studied in a regulated environment to eliminate environmental differences from affecting test results
Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
proposed the theory of evolution
Requirements of Evolution Through Natural Selection
there must be variation among individuals at a genetic and phenotypic level at least some variation must be heritable - offspring resemble their parents some variations are more advantageous than others and are more likely to pass on to the next generation - selective reproduction
Gregor Mendel
studied genetic inheritance
a segment of DNA that carries genetic information
variations of a gene
an individual's unique combination of alleles
the observable expression of an individual's alleles
the measure of an individual's reproductive success compared to others in its population
traits that have evolved by natural selection to increase an individual's fitness
Local Adaptation
traits that have evolved by natural selection to increase an individual's fitness that are specific to the individual's unique environment
Genetic Drift
a method of evolution in which the change of a population over time is through chance and not selective
Founder Effect
a form of genetic drift in which a sample establishes a new population, carrying its own composition of alleles that differs from the original population
Bottleneck Effecr
a form of genetic drift in which the size of a population is severely reduced through a random event, resulting in survivors that have a different composition of alleles than the original population
the movement of individuals or samples between populations
a copying error within an individual's DNA that can create new alleles, introducing variation within a population
Heterozygous Genotypes
having two different alleles for a gene
Homozygous Genotypes
having two identical alleles for a gene
Natural Selection
a method of evolution in which some traits are associated with greater fitness and become more common over time