AP Government Unit 1

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37 Terms
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Direct Democracy
a form of government in which policies and laws are decided by a majority of all those eligible rather than by a body of elected representatives
Participatory Democracy
individual participation by citizens in political decisions and policies that affect their lives, especially directly rather than through elected representatives
Elite democracy
a model of democracy in which a small number of people, usually those who are wealthy and well-educated, influence political decision making
Pluralist democracy
a political system where there is more than one center of power
Natural Rights
rights that all humans have that include life, liberty, property
Social Contract
an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society; individual surrenders liberty in return for protection
Popular sovereignty
a doctrine in political theory that government is created by and subject to the will of the people
the political orientation of those who hold that a republic is the best form of government
articles of confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states; it provided a legal symbol of their union by giving the central government no coercive power over the states or their citizens
constitutional convention
the convention of United States statesmen who drafted the United States Constitution in 1787
shay's rebellion
Massachusetts veterans were not paid for their service, MA militia was quickly overthrown by the vets, no federal government to step in and intercede; prompted the revision of articles of confederation
virginia plan
James Madison wanted the representation in the legislature to be based off of population
new jersey plan
Counter argument to virginia plan was to have legislative representation be equal, no matter the state’s population
Great Compromise
The legislature would be bicameral (two houses) Senate- 2 senators per state House of Representatives- Census is performed every 10 years to determine representation House of Reps- direct election by the people
electoral college
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice president
the idea of a federal organization of more or less self-governing units
enumerated powers
specific powers granted to Congress by the United States Constitution
Reserved Powers
powers reserved to the states by the United States Constitution
concurrent powers
The U.S. Constitution gives concurrent powers, such as the right to build roads, to both the federal and state governments.
separation of powers
a doctrine of constitutional law under which the three branches of government ( executive, legislative, and judicial) are kept separate
doctrine of incorporation
The Supreme Court has ruled that states must guarantee that all citizens be guaranteed their rights, due to the 14th Amendment
dissension within an organization
a member of a former political party in the United States that favored a strong centralized federal government
opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government
bill of rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges granted to the people of the United States
a statement that is added to or revises or improves the constitution
line-item veto
the power of a government executive to veto specific items in an appropriations bill without vetoing the bill altogether
necessary and proper clause
Congress is given the power to pass all laws that are “necessary and proper”, allows Congress to exercise an incredible amount of enumerated power, thus limiting the power of the states
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
virginia and kentucky resolutions
a protest against the Federalist Alien and Sedition Acts
dual federalism
the idea that the federal authority is clearly divided from the state authority and are therefore treated as equal
McCulloch vs. Maryland
a landmark Supreme Court case from 1819. The court’s ruling asserted national supremacy over state authority.
United States vs Lopez
the United States Supreme Court declared the Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990 an unconstitutional overreach of the implied powers of Congress under the Commerce Clause
money from the national government given to the states
categorical grants
federal grants for a specific purpose
conditions of aid
terms set by the federal government that states must meet to receive funds
terms set by the federal government that states must meet, even if money is not provided