Cellular Communication

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26 Terms
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Paracrine signaling
Local signaling in animal cells involving secreted messengers that travel short distances
Synaptic signaling
a type of paracrine signaling that occurs in the nervous system, where an electric signal triggers the release of a neurotransmitter
Hormonal/endocrine signaling
long distance signaling where hormones travel through the bloodstream to their target cells
3 steps of cell signaling
Signal reception, signal transduction, cellular response
signal reception
the cell detects a signaling molecule (acting as a ligand) and it binds to a receptor protein on the surface
signal transduction
the binding of the signaling molecule alters the receptor and initiates a signal transduction pathway
cellular response
the transduced signal triggers a specific response in the target cell
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)
cell-surface transmembrane receptors that work with the help of a G protein
how GPCRs work
G proteins bind GTP from GDP, and then trigger a cellular response
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)
membrane receptors that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups from A T P to another protein
Protein kinases
proteins that transfer phosphates from A T P to protein, a process called phosphorylation
Phosphorylation cascade
a chain of phosphorylation reactions involving kinases that greatly amplifies a signal with each step
protein phosphotase
proteins that dephosphorylate other proteins. important in shutting down the phosphorylation cascade by inactivating protein kinases
second messengers
small nonpolar nonproteins that enter a cell via diffusion and act as another messenger to transmit a signal
Cyclic AMP (monophosphate)
a widely used second messenger created by removing two phosphates from ATP usually activates protein kinase A anf is often associated with GPCRs
Adenylyl cyclase
an enzyme in the plasma membrane that converts ATP to cAMP in response to an extracellular signal
calcium ions (ca2+)
a widely used second messenger due to its conc inside the cell being very low, meaning a small change greatly affects the conc greatly
aspects of signal regulation
amplication of signal and response, specificity of response, efficiency of response, termination of signal
signal amplicfication
signal cascade amplifies the cell response and the number of products that can be made
signal specificity and response coordination
different proteins in different cells can cause a completely different affect for the same signal
cross talk
two pathways "communicate" via activation or inhibition
signal efficiency
scaffolding proteins are used to make the signal more efficient
large relay proteins to which several other relay proteins are attached. they increase the signal transduction efficiency by grouping togetherdifferent proteins involved in the same pathway
signal termination
uses inactivation mechanisms like unbound receptors due to a lack of signaling molecules
a type of programmed cell death that packages parts of the cell to be digested by scavenger cells. prevents enzyme leaking that could damage other cells can be triggered by inner or outer signals