Baroque Period Part One

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

spaced repetition





Practice Test



70 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (70)
Baroque dates
Baroque =
drama, emotion, virtuoso, Shakespeare, Architecture is dramatic
What did inventors finance?
Opera Houses
Where and when was the first opera house established?
Venice, Italy 1637
There was a demand for what?
sheet music, instruments, lessons
Public pays for what?
tickets, subscriptions to seasons
What was the name of the second practice?
Secunda Practica
Secunda Practica is
1st practice: don't violate counterpoint rules controlled dissonance 2nd practice: Counterpoint is broken Surprise dissonance by Monteverdi
General characteristics of the Baroque: Texture
polarity between bass and melody Basso Continuo cello, bassoon, and viola da gamba played the bass line Improvised performances (toccata and prelude) Concertato Medium
Basso Continuo
figured bass
Concertato Medium
an agreement between instruments and voice
General Chacteristics of the Baroque: Tuning and Harmony
equal temperament became more common Harmony was thought of in chords Chromaticism is introduced and later explored commonly
General Characteristic: Performance Practice
ornamentation cadenzas by singers organists could change the length of pieces arias could be added or deleted from operas (could be tailored to certain singers)
Opera literally means
work in Italian
Baroque means
Misshapen pearl in Portuguese
What were used as the model for opera?
Greek tragedies
Girolamo Mei believed that Greek tragedies were
sung in full
What year was Peri's Dafne (only fragments still exist)
What year was Peri's Euridice
What year was Monteverdi's Orfeo
Orfeo 1607
composed in Mantua songs are in strophic/variation form each verse is separated by a ritornello
Why is Orfeo so important?
first great opera instruments are specified in the score
After Orfeo...
Rome becomes the center for opera development in the 1620s range of the topics expanded: saints, religious aspects, comedy Big stage effects extended finales for choral singing and dancing
What are Castrato Singers?
Men are castrated before puberty to sing female parts (so they can sing higher)
10 years later in Venice, Italy
the first public theaters are developed in 1637 libretto becomes very important (the words) main composers of venetian opera: Cesti and Cavalli The singers were in charge - "diva"
LISTENING: "Tu Sei Morta" from Orfeo (you will die)
composer: Monteverdi Date: 1607 Salient Features: Chromaticisim, polarity between bass and voice, Italian text
Ricecar becomes what?
Ricecar is Italian for
"to seek out"
derives from motet: both feature points of imitation what's new in Baroque? just ONE POINT OF IMITATION, Augmentation and Stretto polyphonic
Augmentation is...
note value is longer
Stretto is...
"narrow" repeating the subject before the subject finishes
Canzona means
Italian for "song"
Canzona becomes
sonata (sounded) aka no instruments
derived from French Chanson: both have familiar style and begins with L-S-S rhythm What's new in Baroque? sections get larger > eventually "movements" with contrasting tempos > sonata homophonic texture (predominately)
Dance music becomes
suite (aka partita)
Dance music
New in Baroque: dances are grouped in movements to form a suite; movements have contrasting tempos
Suite Plan
Improvisatory piece , allemande, courante, sarabande, gigue
Improvisatory piece -
german for dance
french for run, triple meter
slow use for court
3/8, dotted rhythm, fast
Improvisatory types
toccata and prelude
LISTENING: Toccata No. 3
1615 Frescobaldi (1583-1643) harpsichord, noodling, virtuosic (lively), showy, arpeggio, sections are short
Style Catholic Sacred Music
Concertato Medium Basso Continuo Stile antico - ancient style
Genres of C.S.M
Grand Concerto Concerto for few voices Sacred oratorio
Grand Concerto
a large work for singers and instruments (not an oratorio yet) often in 2 or more choirs usually at large churches voices and instruments are in CORI SPEZZATI
Concerto for Few voices
smaller, cheaper, easier for fewer voices and continuo derives from secular cantata more common than grand concerto Convent music meant for devotion, no public audiences (meaning women can sing)
Sacred Oratorio
a sacred drama sung throughout with recitatives, arias, ensembles, and instrumental preludes "church hall" derives from opera leading composer is Carissimi (1605-1674)
How is oratorio different than opera?
no stamina, no costumes ensembles could take on roles narrator is sung
Carissimi dates
Characteristics of Sacred oratorio
Biblical text - old testament Two Types: Oratorio Latino (Latin), Oratorio Volgare (Italian) action was not staged, instead it is narrated only solo and choral - no duets
LISTENING: Jephtha (oratorio latino) "Pirate Fulli Israel"
1648 Carissimi (1605-1674) latin text, stretto, strings
Names to know for French Opera
Cardinal Mazarin (brought opera over from Italy) Perrin - librettist Lully (1632-1687)
Lully dates
considered a jerk because he was a political animal instrumental composer to the Sun King Louis IV a ballet dancer
Lully's operas were called
tragedies lyriques
Characteristics of Lully's operas
lots of dancing participation of chorus more scenery less distinction of aria and recit. more instruments FRENCH OVERTURE (only instruments)
Frenh Overture had two parts
Slow - dotted rhythms Fast - polyphonic
dotted note performed longer than notated
ornamentation (brief)
LISTENING Armide Overture,
Lully (1632-1687) 1686 pompous, overdotting, 2 sections
English opera is after
Two popular genres
Masques and Semi-Operas
an early variety show (consisted of recitatives, songs, choruses, dances, costumes, good poetry)
Semi- Operas
a series of brief, unrelated masques drama is more important than music
English Opera composer
Henry Purcell (1659-1695) Dido and Aeneas (1689) - famous opera
LISTENING When I am Laid in Earth
1689 from Dido and Aeneas Purcell (1659-1695) no vibrato, ground bass, english text
Invention of Ground Bass
Bass doesn't change, repeats throughout the whole section