drama, emotion, virtuoso, Shakespeare,
Architecture is dramatic
What did inventors finance?
Where and when was the first opera house established?
Venice, Italy 1637
There was a demand for what?
sheet music, instruments, lessons
Public pays for what?
tickets, subscriptions to seasons
What was the name of the second practice?
Secunda Practica is
1st practice: don't violate counterpoint rules
2nd practice: Counterpoint is broken
Surprise dissonance by Monteverdi
General characteristics of the Baroque: Texture
polarity between bass and melody
cello, bassoon, and viola da gamba played the bass line
Improvised performances (toccata and prelude)
an agreement between instruments and voice
General Chacteristics of the Baroque: Tuning and Harmony
equal temperament became more common
Harmony was thought of in chords
Chromaticism is introduced and later explored commonly
General Characteristic: Performance Practice
cadenzas by singers
organists could change the length of pieces
arias could be added or deleted from operas (could be tailored to certain singers)
Opera literally means
work in Italian
Misshapen pearl in Portuguese
What were used as the model for opera?
Girolamo Mei believed that Greek tragedies were
sung in full
What year was Peri's Dafne (only fragments still exist)
What year was Peri's Euridice
What year was Monteverdi's Orfeo
What was the FIRST GREAT OPERA?
composed in Mantua
songs are in strophic/variation form
each verse is separated by a ritornello
Why is Orfeo so important?
first great opera
instruments are specified in the score
Rome becomes the center for opera development in the 1620s
range of the topics expanded: saints, religious aspects, comedy
Big stage effects
extended finales for choral singing and dancing
What are Castrato Singers?
Men are castrated before puberty to sing female parts (so they can sing higher)
10 years later in Venice, Italy
the first public theaters are developed in 1637
libretto becomes very important (the words)
main composers of venetian opera: Cesti and Cavalli
The singers were in charge - "diva"
LISTENING: "Tu Sei Morta" from Orfeo (you will die)
Salient Features: Chromaticisim, polarity between bass and voice, Italian text
Ricecar becomes what?
Ricecar is Italian for
"to seek out"
derives from motet: both feature points of imitation
what's new in Baroque? just ONE POINT OF IMITATION, Augmentation and Stretto
note value is longer
"narrow" repeating the subject before the subject finishes
Italian for "song"
sonata (sounded) aka no instruments
derived from French Chanson: both have familiar style and begins with L-S-S rhythm
What's new in Baroque? sections get larger > eventually "movements" with contrasting tempos > sonata
homophonic texture (predominately)
Dance music becomes
suite (aka partita)
New in Baroque: dances are grouped in movements to form a suite; movements have contrasting tempos