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Criminal Justice Final

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Hispanic Communities

stereotyped as illegal immigrants, over policed, underserved

Black Communities

disproportionately arrested for violent and property crimes, shot 4x more than whites by cops

Native American Communities

inadequate law enforcement despite higher crime rates, underfunded police, lack resources

____ have the most confidence in police

whites

first most important factor in public attitudes towards police

race

second most important factor in public attitudes towards police

age

procedural justice

levels of satisfaction mainly determined not by outcome but by process (what happens during the encounter)

most likely victims of crime

african americans

hispanics

race that initiates contact with police the least

native americans

race that experiences the highest violent crime rates

lowest victimization rates

asian, pacific islander and hawaiian

middle eastern

race that experiences stereotyping at airports, racial profiling and hate crimes

ratio of police fatal shootings has ____ from 1970 to 1998

decreased, by half

Tennessee v Garner

one of the most significant police shooting incidents.. fleeing felon rule

fleeing felon rule

allowed officers to shoot to kill for purpose of arrest any fleeing suspecting felon, supreme court declared unconstitutional

vice activities

police historically segregated in low income and racial minority neighborhoods

initial hiring, assignments and promotions

employment discrimination in policing

bail critics

says system discriminates against poor defendants and racial minorities

less

african american who SA white is ____ likely to be convicted than whites charged with SA a white

enhancements

extra charges

Strauder v West Virginia

limiting jury selection to white males violates equal protection clause of 14 amendment, but this didn’t stop them from developing techniques designed to preserve an all white jury.

racial disparity

“minorities commit more serious crimes and have more serious prior criminal records than whites”

indirect/ economic discrimination

“minorities are more likely to be poor”

institutional discrimination

“minorities are more likely to be subject to the neutral laws”

racial discrimination

judges are biased or have prejudices against minorities

subtle racial discrimination

the disparities occur in some contexts but not others

juvenile justice and delinquency prevention act 1974

separated, deinstitutionalize and when it was revised, construction of separate juvenile facilities

first stage in juvenile justice system

intake.. juvenile petition, detention hearing, preliminary hearing, transfer hearing

2 stage in juvenile justice system

adjudication- adjudicatory hearing (criminal trial)

3 stage in juvenile justice system

disposition- final stage in processing, sentencing

4 stage in juvenile justice system

post adjudicatory hearing - appeals

superpredators

80s term to describe criminal youth “new breed of violent offenders with no remorse”

gun free schools act 1994

automatic expulsion of at least 1 year for bringing firearm or explosive to school

1960s focus

rehab

1960s juveniles

starts to separate adults and juveniles

1960s crime

increasing, new rights being violated, civil disobedience (protesting) was a crime that “led to other crime”

1960s major events

civil rights, watts riots (police abuse riots)

1960s supreme court

warren- search and seizure, individual and defendant rights

1960s policing

end of reform era, team policing, miranda rights passed

1960s sentencing

indeterminate sentencing, lots of judge discretion on length of time (between 10 and 25 years judge picks)

1970s supreme court

burger- exclusionary rule

1970s policing

moved from team policing to community policing, police corruption coming to light

1970s sentencing

structured sentencing (by the book), sentencing chart

1970s corrections

exposing high recidivism, no point in rehab, focus on punishment

1970s juvenile

juvenile prevention act passed, required separate area from adults, status offenders can’t be held in confinement, increase use of community sentencing, more judicial discretion

1970s crime

continued to increase

1980s major events

“tough on crime” era

1980s supreme court

burger, then rehnquist

1980s policing

community policing still, african americans had hard time w this, war on drugs followed through by reagan

1980s sentencing

mandatory minimum for drugs, truth in sentencing (violent and serious crimes had to serve at least 85% of sentence in prison) (states got money if adopted)

1980s corrections

retribution, incapacitation and deterrence, dramatic increase in prison population, private prisons to help w overcrowding

1980s juveniles

juvenile prevention act revised- completely separate facilities now, automatically tried as an adult if had drugs/ weapons w in 1000 ft of school

1980s crime

dramatic increase in drug crimes, sharp increase in young men crime (superpredators)

1990s major events

LA riots (rodney king), OKC bombing, Columbine

1990s supreme court

rehnquist

1990s policing

community policing still, police funding skyrockets with more military equipment

1990s sentencing

3 strikes laws, more states adopt federal sentencing guidelines for all crimes, not just violent and serious ones

1990s corrections

retribution, incapacitation and deterrence focus, prison population continues to grow fast

1990s juvenile

more student issues turned criminal, schools hands them to police, schools becoming more prison-like, juvenile transfer is easier to get (juvenile to adult prison)

1990s crime

violent crime increase ends

2000s supreme court

rehnquist and john roberts

2000s policing

increase in intelligence agencies, tech to fight crime like heat maps, racial profiling officially banned

2000s sentencing

beginning of sentencing reform to help with effects of mass incarceration, focus more of release from prison (reentry), prison #s begin to drop

2000s corrections

prison pop begins to drop

2000s juvenile

death penalty eliminated

2000s crime

street crime declining, increase in white collar crime, DNA relying

2010s major events

mass shootings

2010s supreme court

john roberts

2010s policing

homeland security era (still increasing intelligence agencies)

2010s sentencing

fair sentencing act, crack cocaine v cocaine (racial)

2010s corrections

rehab and restoration focused, prison pop still declining

2010 juvenile

life sentences without possibility of parole is unconstitutional, even for homicide later, solitary confinement for federal offense banned

2010s crime

continues to decrease except for high crime cities, crime barely peaked on its decline right around elections.