BASC103A - Module 3 (Animal Behavior)

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Animal behavior
Actions performed by an animal in response to internal/external stimuli
- eating action; eating of food & drinking water to sustain body energy throughout the day (form of innate behavior)
Internal Stimuli
stimuli from its own body signals
Indicators of Good Animal Welfare
- Alertness & curiosity - Normal range of activities - Interaction w/other members - Interaction w/humans - Playing
Maintenance and Reproductive Behavior
2 Categories of Normal Behavior
Reflex, Instinct, Ingestive, Body care, Thermoregulatory, Taxis, Migration, Aestivation, Hibernation
Enumerate the 9 Forms of Innate Behavior
- automatic/autonomic response; involves no conscious control - Ex: normal reflex when touching hot is to pull away (form of innate behavior)
Social Behavior
Maintenance behavior that is related with the animal’s ability to communicate w/others
Flehmen reaction
rolling/curling of lips when pheromones are smelled (dogs, hamsters)
Innate Behavior
Maintenance behavior that is genetically determined & animals are born w/this ability
- complex innate behavior/response; not taught - Ex: suckling in newborn; nest building in birds (form of innate behavior)
Significance of animal behavior in animal welfare
- To know the animal’s feelings - To know the animal’s choices - To know the animal’s reactions
- way of defending a physical space against other members of its species; prevents over-crowding & increases survival in case of fighting - Territorial dogs may be aggressive resulting to biting (form of social behavior)
- to attain optimum body temperature - Animals would take shade under trees to avoid sun heat; would pant - When cold they will shiver; will result to herd-gallop to raise body temperature (form of innate behavior)
Causes of agonistic behavior
- Formation of new groups; results to fighting specially in cattle - Entry of new individual in a well-established group - Competition for limited food supply & bedding space - Competition for mates
term used to describe animals that eats above the plant
Reproductive Behavior
essential for the perpetuation of new individuals; there are certain behavioral traits in female & male animals
tongue rolling
form of abnormal behavior that's seen in calves or young cattle; associated w/psychological behavioral frustration
term used to describe animals that eats at the middle of the plant
External/Environmental Stimuli
stimulus from environment
Body care
- to attain comfort (autogrooming vs allogrooming); done to prevent disease & parasitism; includes scratching & licking; sick animals wouldn’t clean their bodies (form of innate behavior)
term used to describe animals that eats below the plant
Indicators of Poor Animal Welfare
- Limited range of activity - Panting or sweating (indicates hot environmental temperature) - Huddling & shivering (indicates cold temperature) - Depression & inactivity (indicates sickness) - Abnormal fear or aggression w/humans
- reaction to specific environmental stimulus (form of innate behavior)
branch of animal science that deals w/ behavior; useful for animal welfare
- seasonal movement of animals to other places; usually to warmer areas (form of innate behavior)
- no punishment or reward involved; animal is repeatedly given stimulus - Ex: horses wouldn’t move when cars go by (form of learned behavior)
playing in mud or water to cool down
- state of deep sleep; body temp, oxygen consumption & breathing rate decreases to conserve energy (bats, hamster, hedgehogs, bears) (form of innate behavior)
Trial & Error
- animal keeps trying until correct response is made to attain the reward; reward is expected (form of learned behavior)
feather picking
form of abnormal behavior that's associated w/loss of diet, poor ventilation (chickens)
Agonistic Behavior
all forms of behavior in animals which is in conflict w/other animals
meaning light; movement of organism towards a light source
Courtship dances
- body movement to attract mates specially in spiders, birds (form of social behavior)
Learned Behavior
Maintenance behavior that is acquired from practice/experience
Habituation, Imprinting, Classical Conditioning, Trial & Error
Enumerate the 4 Forms of Learned Behavior
Pheromonal, Courtship dances, Territorial
Enumerate the 3 Forms of Social Behavior
- state of reduced metabolism; occurs to animals living in intense heat (done by snails & slugs) (form of innate behavior)
Maintenance Behavior
This behavior has 3 subtypes: innate, learned, & social
- social attachment to object during “critical period” - Ex: when you pick a baby bird, it may think you are the mother (form of learned behavior)
head shaking
form of abnormal behavior that's associated w/irritation & nervousness (chickens)
Behavioral Pattern
- Organized segment of behavior having a special function may be developed through playing or social contact w/other animals - Under influence of environmental stimulation & genetic factors - Varies with sexes, breed, strain, individual, & climate, & other factors
Classical Conditioning
- associated w/a specific stimulus; animals learn to associate one event to another event; association of closely related events - In Pavlov’s experiment, ringing of bell (acts as a stimuli) indicates food (form of learned behavior)
form of abnormal behavior that's associated w/stress & discomfort (pigs)
- communicates through chemical messengers; associated w/pheromone chemicals - Ex: ants would communicate through pheromones (form of social behavior)
Female reproductive behaviors (during estrus)
- Restlessness, bellowing, & twitching of tail (specially in cows) - Urinating stance (for horses); frequent urination is also evident - seeking for the opposite sex (in sheep)
Male reproductive behaviors (increased libido)
- Nosing of perineum (smelling of vulva) - Flicking out of tongue - Bleating (in goats, sheep)
producing of unusual low-pitch sounds (in goats, sheep)
Avenues for the prevention of abnormal behavior
- Improve/alter housing - Provide adequate space to avoid overcrowding - Suitable beddings - Adequate exercise - Adequate roughages & balanced diet - Separation of sick or injured animals from healthy ones
movement of organism towards a chemical source
Abnormal/Anomalous Behavior
repeated behavior aberrations
form of abnormal behavior that's seen in horses; associated w/stress & gastrointestinal irritability
Causes of Abnormal Behaviors
- Overcrowding - Monotonous environment - Suppression of natural instinct - Inadequate exercise - Malnutrition & nutritional imbalance