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Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain? What were the key factors?
began 18th century, ready supply of money for machines and factories, abundance of natural resources (coal and iron ore), rivers for water power and transportation
Enclosure Movement
Parliament passed the laws which made landowners fence off common land
What sparked the transition from cottage industries to factories?
more efficient to bring workers to the new machines and have them work in factories, new streams and rivers, which were used to power many of these early machines
Why were coal and iron so critical to the Industrial Revolution?
machines depended on coal for fuel, iron was used to make machines and trains
What was the social impact of industrialization in Europe?
middle and working classes emerged, middle class were the factory owners
industrial capitalism
an economic system based on industrial production
money available for investment
a person who finds new business opportunities and new ways to make profits
cottage industry
a method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes
the process in which coke derived from coal is used to burn away impurities in crude iron to produce high-quality iron
a system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production
What role did the French Social Structure play in the lead-up to the French Revolution?
The First and Second Estates didn’t have to pay the taille (France’s chief tax), but the Third Estate did
What role did Enlightenment Ideas play in the lead-up to the French Revolution?
introduced ideas of questioning authority and religion and comparing people’s needs with the Republic’s needs
What role did Economic Issues play in the lead-up to the French Revolution?
food shortages, delays in manufacturing, unemployment, and rising prices for food
Why did the Third Estate declare itself the National Assembly, and what did deputies hope to achieve?
Only Third Estate had to pay taxes, wanted to achieve equality and make sure that the First and Second Estates would have to pay taxes too
What was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and why was it significant?
proclaimed that all men were free and equal before the law, that appointment to public office should be based on talent, and that no group should be exempt from taxation, Freedom of speech and of the press were affirmed, people agreed that women should be included
one of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution: the clergy (First Estate), the nobles (Second Estate), and the townspeople (Third Estate)
an annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy
the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
Tennis Court Oath
an oath that the Third Estate took at an indoor tennis court swearing that they would continue their meeting until they had a new constitution
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
said that bishops and priests were to be elected by the people, not appointed by the pope and the Church; it also said that the state would pay the salaries of the bishops and priests
The Great Fear
Peasant rebellions about hatred of the entire landholding system, with its fees and obligations
Storming of the Bastille
Louis XVI used force against the Third Estate, and on July 14th, 1789, about 900 Parisians gathered and demolished this building
Five Pillars of Islam
Belief - Muslims only believe in the one God (Allah), and that Muhammad is his messenger. Prayer - They have to perform five prescribed prayers each day. Charity - They have to give part of their wealth to charity. Fasting - During Ramadan, Muslims must not eat or drink from dawn to sunset. Pilgrimage - Muslims are expected to make a pilgrimage to Makkah at least once in their lifetime.
a pilgrimage to Makkah, one of the requirements of the Five Pillars of Islam
the journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah in 622, which became year 1 of the official calendar of Islam
monotheistic religion that emerged in the Arabian Peninsula during the seventh century
the holy scriptures of the religion of Islam
Located in Makkah, the holiest shrine of the Islamic faith
Arabic for God, the supreme god of Islam
people who suffer or die for their beliefs
short stories that taught simple moral lessons
one anointed by God
the teaching or revelation of Christ
the sacred book where their early history and the moral and religious laws of God are recorded
belief in only one God
The scattering of Jews throughout the world
king solomon
King David’s son, he was wise, and his reign was marked with peace. He made the city of Jerusalem into a magnificent capital
king david
King David was a skilled general, and he unified Israel and made it a threat in the Middle East
an agreement
helped the Hebrews escape from Egypt, and led them to the Sinai Peninsula
What were the main religious beliefs of the ancient Hebrews?
The Ten Commandments (religious and ethical laws), although slavery was accepted everywhere at the time, the Torah told the Hebrews to treat slaves with kindness
How did Judaism influence Christianity?
Jesus, the leader of Christianity, was born in Palestine and studied with Jewish scholars and teachers. Christianity grew out of Jewish traditions.
What ideas did Jesus emphasize?
believing in one God and upholding the Ten Commandment of the Hebrews, taught that everyone was equal, said that people who were humble, merciful, and unselfish would be rewarded with eternal life
Why did Christianity gain so many followers?
suddenly grew once people were being persecuted
what attracted people to Christianity?
offered hope of salvation and eternal life for both rich and poor people
Describe life for Arabs living in the Arabian Peninsula in the years before Muhammad
quite different in the years before Muhammad. Religions that were accepted included Iranian, Christian, and Jewish
why was 622 CE so significant in the history of Islam?
Muhammad and his 30 followers left Makkah and went to Madinah, journey is known as the Hijrah and became year 1 of the official calendar of Islam
why was 630 CE so significant in the history of Islam?
Muhammad returned to Makkah with 100,00 men, Makkah quickly surrendered and most people converted to Islam
What are the key tenets of Islam and how do they shape the daily lives of Muslims?
expected to follow Five Pillars of Islam, practice honesty, and justice in dealing with others, forbidden to gamble, eat pork, drink alcoholic beverages, or engage in dishonest behavior, family life is based on marriage.
social contract
entire society agrees to be governed by its general will, all individuals should be forced to abide by it since it represents what is best for the entire community
the state should not impose government regulations but should leave the economy alone
an eighteenth-century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law
separation of powers
a form of government in which the executive, legislative, and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances
French for “philosopher”; applied to all intellectuals during the Enlightenment
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer and had advanced the strongest statement for the rights of women, declared that women should have equal rights in education, economic, and political life
Baron de Montesquieu
French Noble, wrote The Spirit of Laws in 1748, stated that England’s government had three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial
inductive reasoning
making systematic observations and carefully organized experiments to test hypotheses or theories, a process that will lead to correct general principals
scientific method
a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence that was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world
a system of thought expounded by René Descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge
universal law of gravitation
one of Newton’s three laws of motion; it explains that planetary bodies continue in elliptical orbits around the sun because every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity
what is Copernicus' view of the universe?
said that universe was heliocentric, correct one
what is the Ptolemaic system?
said that universe was geocentric, wrong one
What were Kepler's key contributions to the Scientific Revolution?
proved that the sun was at the center of the universe, showed that the orbits of the planets around the sun were elliptical, with the sun toward the end of the ellipse instead of at the center
What were Galileo's key discoveries?
proved that the “orbs of light” from the Ptolemaic system were actually composed of pure substance, there were moons revolving around Jupiter, sunspots, and mountains on Earth’s moon
how did the church respond to Galileo's discoveries?
didn't believe him because the bible doesn't say anything like that
Why is Isaac Newton considered the “greatest genius of the Scientific Revolution”?
defined three laws of motion that govern the planetary bodies and help explain all the motion in the universe
Maria Winkelmann
made some original contributions to astronomy, including the discovery of a comet
Margaret Cavendish
as a philosopher, her contribution to philosophy is widely recognized today
Blaise Pascal
experimented with how liquids were under pressure, this led to the principle known as Pascal’s law
Robert Boyle
work on the properties of gasses led to his own law, which states that the volume of a gas varies with the pressure exerted on it
a Greek physician, was wrong about using animal anatomy to find out about human anatomy, he thought that the liver was the beginning point for the circulation of blood
showed that the heart was the beginning point for the circulation of blood by dissecting human bodies, proved that the same blood flows through the veins and arteries and makes a complete circuit
Committee of Public Safety/Robespierre
led by the radical... For about a year, took control of the government; they tried to protect France from domestic threats and adopted certain policies that became known as the Reign of Terror.
republic of virtue
a democratic republic composed of good citizens
coup d'etat
a sudden overthrow of the government
What was the Directory and why did it only last from 1795-1799?
mainly known for corruption, overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte in the Coup of 18 Brumaire and replaced by the Consulate.
How did the National Convention try to de-Christianize France and how did the French people respond?
priests were encouraged to marry, the word “saint” was removed from street signs, churches were looted and closed by revolutionary armies, efforts didn't work at all
What was the Reign of Terror and what impact did it have on France?
revolutionary courts were set up to prosecute traitors. Almost 40,000 people were killed, Revolutionary armies were set up to bring rebellious cities under the control of the Convention
What radical steps did the National Convention take and how did European nations respond?
wanted to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic in its place, Mountain club convinced the Convention to pass a decree that condemned Louis XVI to death, in 1793: it seemed like the revolution would be destroyed; the old regime would be reestablished.
The Dharma
divine law
ultimate salvation, when one’s soul passes through the reincarnation cycle of human suffering
the eightfold path
1. Right view 2. Right intention 3. Right speech 4. Right action 5. Right livelihood 6. Right effort 7. Right mindfulness 8. Right concentration
the middle way
a path of moderation to enlightenment (not as extreme as the method the buddha tried for six years)
four noble truths
life is full of suffering suffering is caused by our desires the way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals/see others as extensions of ourselves. the way to end desire is to follow the middle path
buddhas (people who have reached enlightenment) and choose to delay it so they can help humanity
Why has the Dalai Lama chosen to delay ultimate nirvana?
to help other human beings get closer to nirvana
What did the Buddha come to realize about the meaning of life?
one can only be enlightened through meditation
What were some specific teachings of Siddhartha Gautama that rejected several key Hindu beliefs?
no gods, no castes, women can be monks
Why did Siddhartha Gautama leave a life of luxury and how did he attempt to find a way to eliminate human suffering?
he went out into the city multiple times and each time he was shocked by old age, poverty, and sickness
Mohandas Gandhi
Born in 1869, in Gujrat, studied in London and became a lawyer. Became active in the independence movement and created one based on nonviolent resistance, aim of this was to force the British to improve the lot of the poor and grant independence to India. This actually led to Indian independence
Muslim League
Established in 1906, Muslim politicians had goal of securing Muslim interests on the Indian subcontinent
Indian National Congress
Created in 1885, a small group of Indians that called for a share in the governing process; had difficulties because of religious differences
a government who ruled as a representative of a monarch
an Indian soldier hired by the British East India Company to protect the company’s interests in the region
benefits of British rule on India
Brought order and stability to a society badly divided into many states with different, sometimes opposing, political systems Led to a fairly honest, efficient government
bad parts of British rule on India
Indians got hired by British go build roads, canals, universities, and medical centers British entrepreneurs and a small number of Indians reaped financial benefits from British rule, but it brought hardship to millions of others in both the cities and the countryside British manufactured goods destroyed local industries British zamindars to collect taxes, but zamindars took advantage of this authority, and the less fortunate peasants lost their land The British encouraged farmers to switch from growing food to growing cotton. This meant more people died from starvation because there wasn’t enough food supply Led to rise of Indian nationalist movement
What were the causes of the Sepoy Rebellion (1857)?
Some sepoys refused to load their guns because of a rumor that the troops’ new rifle cartridges were greased with cow and pig fat, so the British charged them with mutiny, enraged the sepoy troops; they went on a rampage
What were the effects of the Sepoy Rebellion (1857)?
The British parliament transferred the powers of the East India Company directly to the British government In 1876, Britain’s Queen Victoria took the title of Empress of India, making the people of India her colonial subjects
Consider Napoleon's domestic and foreign policies: In what ways did he preserve the ideals of the French Revolution?
The Civil Code preserved many of the ideals that the revolutionaries fought for, but step backward for women and children,
Consider Napoleon's domestic and foreign policies: In what ways did he not preserve the ideals of the French Revolution?
shut down 60 of France’s 73 newspapers and he banned books, insisted that all manuscripts were scrutinized by the government before being published; even mail was checked by the government.
What were the two major reasons behind the collapse of Napoleon's empire?
Britain’s ability to resist Napoleon and the rise of nationalism
how did Britain's ability to resist Napoleon weaken his hold on Europe?
Allied states resented the fact that they were told that they couldn’t trade with the British, but the Middle East and Latin America gave new outlets to Britain for its goods, therefore they were never weakened economically.
how did the rise of nationalism weaken Napoleon's hold on Europe?
unintentionally uniting citizens of states from all over Europe in their hatred of the invaders, letting people see power and strength of national feeling, the united citizens and nation turned against him
How did Napoleon's disaster in Russia affect both his Grand Army and the French nation?
left with less than 40,000 of the original 600,000 soldiers from the Grand Army, let other European states attack weak army, Paris captured in March of 1814, was exiled, the monarchy was restored to Louis XVIII, the brother of the executed King Louis XVI
What motivated European nations in their attempts to exert control over West Africa and North Africa?
wanted control over West Africa and North Africa because of their interest in trade and protecting their trade routes, could export and exploit African resources
What impact did King Leopold II of Belgium have on the European scramble to colonize Africa?
February 5, 1885, the King established the Congo Free State by brutally seizing the African landmass as his personal possession, rather than control the Congo as a colony, King privately owned the region
What role did Cecil Rhodes play in British imperialism in South Africa?
ultimate imperialist, in 1890, he became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, introduced various Acts of Parliament to push black people from their lands and make way for industrial development
Why did European imperialism spark African nationalism?
noticed disparities between the democratic ideals of European countries and reality
Who led these African nationalism movements?
Western-educated Africans
David Livingstone
Famous explorer who basically made map of Africa
Henry Stanley
Explorer sent to look for Livingstone when he disappeared, kept his legacy alive even though he hated Africa
Berlin Conference (1884-85)
Meeting to see who would get East Africa
Boers/Great Trek
Descendants of Dutch settlers, moved out of British colony to start their own republic
What were the economic motives of 19th century European imperialism?
Raw materials Markets for finished goods Connection to industrialization
What were the political motives of 19th century European imperialism?
Increase patriotism Distraction from domestic tension European rivalries
What were the cultural motives of 19th century European imperialism?
Spread Christianity Wanted to “civilize” the natives Justified foreign intervention as their duty to civilize “backward” people ”White man’s burden”
White man's burden
a duty formerly asserted by white people to manage the affairs of nonwhite people whom they believed to be less developed
Communications technologies that gave European imperialists such an advantage
Letters were getting sent faster because of the steamships being more efficient with the Suez Canal Telegraphs
Powerful weapons technologies that gave European imperialists such an advantage
Breech-loading firearms with rifled bored that were far more accurate and reliable than any other firearm 1870s: Europeans experimenting with rifled machine guns 1880s: adopted the Maxim gun
Transportation technologies that gave European imperialists such an advantage
Steamships Railroads
How did new canals enhance effectiveness of new transportation technologies?
Suez Canal and Panama Canal facilitated the building and maintenance of empires by enabling naval vessels to travel rapidly between the world’s seas and oceans
Cecil Rhodes
went to south africa in 1871, brought claims in the diamond fields and he bought the rights to others’ claims when they look promising, in 1889, became prime minister of Cape Colony,
How did Europeans justify imperialism?
used ideas from eugenics and social darwinism to justify their conquests
How did Southeast Asia reflect the impact of "new imperialism?"
became based on cash crops
How did the economic policies of colonial powers impact the colonists?
growth of commercial farming and production of cash crops in India
How was resistance to colonial rule different in the late 1800s compared to the 1930s? What factors help account for this change?
expanding influence over local governments using colonies for military bases block materials building railroads modern… technology
focused on physical endeavors of establishing a colony they must maintain and control, or searching for riches
“new imperialism”
searched for cheap resources, crops, or labor in order to mass manufacture goods to then sell to their domestic and foreign
social darwinism
the idea that certain people become powerful in society because they are innately better
a political unit that depends on another government for its protection
indirect rule
colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status
direct rule
colonial government in which local elites were removed from power and replaced by a new set of officials brought from the colonizing country
General Yuan Shigai
a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty and eventually ended the Qing dynasty rule of China in 1912, later becoming the Emperor of China
Sun Yat-sen
a young radical who formed the Revive China society, he believed that the Qing dynasty was in a state of decay and could not support China; he believed that until China reformed and followed the government styles of the west, they would always be at the mercy of western powers
Open Door Policy
a policy, proposed by US secretary John Hay in 1899, that stated all powers with spheres of influence in China would respect equal trading opportunities with China and not set tariffs giving an unfair advantage to the citizens of their own country
spheres of influence
areas in which foreign powers have been granted exclusive rights and privileges such as trading rights and mining privileges
Taiping Rebellion (1850-64)
a peasant revolt and massacre caused by the failure of the Chinese government's ability to resolve the economic fallout of the Opium Wars
living in sections of the country set aside got foreigners but not always subject to domestic laws
Treaty of Nanjing (1842)
The Chinese agreed to open 5 coastal ports to British trade, limit taxes on imported British goods, pay for the cost of the war, and give Hong Kong to the Brits in exchange for the end of the war
Opium War (1839-42)
British forces fought a war in China that benefitted drug smugglers. Their subsequent victory in the conflict opened up the lucrative Chinese trade to British merchants. It began after the Chinese found that opium in exchange for silver trade was killing the Chinese markets