History 15 Midterm 2

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101 Terms
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Pendleton Civil Service Act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
This was the spark that started World War I. Was murdered on by a Serbian nationalist while visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia. Germany urged Austria-Hungary to fight and they went to war against Serbia; all of this due to Serbia wanting to expand
Populist Movement
Movement of farmers that wanted high tariffs, government takeover of railroads, and to buy up silver and unsold wheat.
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Treaty that ended World War I; it was much harder on Germany than Wilson wanted but not as punitive as France and England desired. It was harsh enough, however, to set stage for Hitler's rise of power in Germany in 1930s.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Navy officer who wrote "The influence of Sea Power upon History" and created new markets at distant ports and wanted a large merchant marine fleet / powerful navy.
The Red Scare
fear that communists were working to destroy the American way of life
The Philippine Insurrection
before the Philippines was annexed by the U.S. there existed tension between U.S. troops and Filippinos. eventually we entered into a war with the Philippines.
The Bonus March
Group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given economic relief from the government due to their involvement in the war. However, in 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government to a latter date thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters, and because they were veterans and heroes of this country, Hoover's popularity plummeted because of it.
Jane Addams
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
The Hundred Days
A series of massive allied offensives which ended World War 1. They pushed the Central Powers back and undid the Germans spring offensive.
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Trust Buster (Roosevelt)
Passed the Sherman Antitrust Act which sought to break up monopolistic corporations and prevent anti-competitive tactics. was used incorrectly against labor unions at first.
Huey Long
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
The Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
This political party was formed by T. Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive party ticket.
Court Packing
Attempt by FDR to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal. Plan died in congress and made opponents of New Deal inflamed.
Election of 1912
Woodrow Wilson wins! When Theodore Roosevelt broke from the Republicans to form the Bull Moose (AKA "Progressive") Party, he hoped to win back the presidency. His presence split the Republican vote resulting in a win for the Democrat, Wilson.
The Waning Presidency
This describes a decrease in the power of the executive branch. It was characterized by scandals such as Johnson's impeachment, Grant's scandals (attempt to influence and manipulate the gold market, the Whiskey Ring), & the Compromise of 1877.
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
law that suspended Chinese immigration into America.
The spoils system
The winning political party rewards its campaign workers / other supporters by appointing them to governmental posts & other perks.
President Garfield's Assassination
The assassin once supported President Garfield but was not given a job afterwards, prompting the murder. Led to the Pendleton Civil Service Act.
Grover Cleveland
Democratic president who removed tariffs and audited Veterans Pension money which was being misused.
Billion Dollar Congress of 1890
It was criticized as the "Billion Dollar Congress'" for its lavish spending and, for this reason it incited drastic reversals in public support that led to Cleveland's reelection in 1892.
The Depression of 1893
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Led to the Pullman strike.
The Pullman Strike of 1894
A staged walkout strike by railroad workers upset by drastic wage cuts. Was not supported by the American Federation of Labor. Federal troops forced an end to the strike.
The Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896.
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
Spanish American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
The Maine
USS Maine sinks in Cuba, leading to the Spanish-American War. Newspapers blamed it on the Spanish. "A splendid Little War" against spain".
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.
The Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
The Social Justice Movement
During the 1890s and after, this movement attracted followers who sought to free people from the often devastating impact of urban life. It focused on the need for housing reform, more stringent child labor regulations, and better working conditions for women.
Hull House
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
Temperance Movement
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption
Frances Willard
Became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.
A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers
A general revolt against the overly intellectual, somewhat fastidious, and closed systems of idealism in 19th-century philosophy
Muller v. Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
Louis Brandeis
A Jewish lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling.
Alice Paul
Head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
Carrie Chapman Catt
A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment.
16th amendment
Allows the federal government to collect income tax
17th amendment
The direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures)
18th amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th amendment
Gave women the right to vote
Graduated Income Tax
a method of taxation that taxes people at different rates depending on income
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Plessy v Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
W.E.B. Dubois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Robert LaFollette
the Wisconsin governor who was a progressive reformer and ran for president.
Direct Democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Initiative, Referendum, Recall
three powers reserved to enable the voters, by petition, to propose or repeal legislation or to remove an elected official from office.
Square Deal
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
Upton Sinclair
author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906 - wrote The Jungle
The Panama Canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States, it opened in 1915. Controlled by the United States at the time who collected taxes.
Dollar Diplomacy
the use of a country's financial power to extend its international influence.
Moral Diplomacy
Foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace
Triple Entente and Triple Alliance
The triple Entente was an alliance between France, Britain and Russia, the Triple alliance was an alliance between Germany, Austria and Russia
Neutrality Policy
not taking sides in wars between other nations
Sinking of the Lusitania
Cruise ship that was sunk by German submarines and helped bring the US closer to involvement in WWI. The ship was supposedly transporting weapons.
The Election of 1916
Wilson was anti-war Hughes was pro-war. Wilson won by a little more than 3 percent vote.
Zimmerman Telegram
A telegram Germany Sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S. It was intercepted and the code was broken.
Jeanette Rankin
First woman to serve in Congress. Suffragist and pacifist, voted against US involvement in WWI and WWII.
War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.
Committee on Public Information
Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda
National War Labor Board
Negotiated disputes between workers and employers. It settled any possible labor difficulties that might hamper the war efforts.
The Sedition and Espionage Acts
U.S. laws that made it illegal to criticize the war
Schenck v. United States
Supreme court decides that any actions taken that present a "clear and present danger" to the public or government isn't allowed, this can limit free speech
Trench Warfare
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty between Russia and Germany that would end Russia's involvement in WWI in 1917
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Harding Scandals
Major incidents of corruption in government that occurred while Harding was president. Most notable, lease of federally owned oil reserve land to private interests in return for bribes.
U.S. Economy after the Great War
Business was booming and the US became essentially the most economically powerful nation in the world.
The Tulsa Riot
Worse race riot in American history. White mob burned black section of city to the ground. 300 blacks killed, 10,000 homeless.
The 1920 U.S. Census
25% drop in number of Americans admitting to having been born in Germany; due to Anti-German crusade -- words of German origin were changed ie. "hamburger" to "liberty sandwich", "sauerkraut" to "liberty cabbage;"
Harlem Renaissance
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Scopes Monkey Trial
1925 court case in Tennessee that focused on the issue of teaching evolution in public schools.
Flappers (1920s)
[New] Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair, and had more sexual freedom. They began to abandon traditional female roles and take jobs usually reserved for men.
National Origins Act of 1924
A law that severely restricted immigration by establishing a system of national quotas that blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians. The policy stayed in effect until the 1960s.
Stock Market Speculation
Took place in late 20s, people thought the market would just keep going up, put money in just for kicks, with no regard for the actual company. Caused giant bubble, led in part to the 1929 Crash.
Black Tuesday (1929)
Panicked sellers traded nearly 16 million shares, also known as the Wall Street Crash of 1929
Voluntary Cooperation
Hoover implored businessmen not to cut production or lay off workers...talked labor leaders into forgoing demands for higher wages/better hours. 1931 economic conditions deteriorated so much that structure collapsed.
The New Deal
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
Fireside Chats
The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.
Emergency Banking Relief Act
gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Gave farmers money to reduce crop size to reduce production and bring up the value of crops
Federal Emergency Relief Act
Distributed millions of dollars of direct aid to unemployed workers.
Civilian Conservation Corps
New Deal program that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects
Dr. Francis Townsend
Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week's salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.
Fr. Charles Coughlin
A priest with a radio show, thought new deal wasn't enough
Second New Deal
(1935) a new set of programs in the spring of 1935 including additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs
The Wagner Act
guaranteed the right of unions to organize and to collectively bargain with management.
Works Progress Administration
New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings.
Social Security Act
created a tax on workers and employers. That money provided monthly pensions for retired people.
Roosevelt Recession
This terms refers to the period when FDR cut government spending to balance budget; this led to a recession
Fourteen Points
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.