commerce end of year exam

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why might young people move from home?
- job opportunities - family disputes - freedom and independence - to start a family - parents unable to sustain dependents - schooling opportunities
pros of moving from home
- independence gained - growth in skills e.g. finance or cooking - new friends/community - privacy - widens school and job communities
cons of moving from home
- expensive $$$$ - leaving family/familiarity - overwhelming responsibility - chores - roommates
when can you legally leave home?
16+ with income and safe housing
why are australians living at home longer?
house prices rising, hard to get secure work, school eats up time, centerlink = insufficient
what essential documentation do you need to move out of home?
medicare card, birth certificate, photo ID
example of gov organisations that can support those moving out
department of social services, department of communities & justice, centrelink
examples of religious/community organisations that can assist when leaving home
anglicare, kids helpline, youth centres, community housing, vinnies
who are the taldemunde youth services?
organisation that offer 3 stages for young people who need help leaving home.
steps in renting a property
1. find the property 2. obtain the residential tenancy agreement 3. complete the condition report 4. pay a reservation fee (if appliquable- usually worth one wks rent) 5. read and sign the lease 6. pay the rental bond (4 wks rent held by rental bond board, operated by NSW fair trading)
what should you be provided with when you move into a rental?
- tenant checklist - copy of lease - 2 copies of the condition report - a bond lodgement form (to be signed) - keys 🔑😍
why should you read the lease before signing?
- removes doubt and confusion - helps tenants understand their rights - legal obligation to fully read lease
what is a residential tenancy agreement?
the RTA is a document that must be signed by both the landlord and tenant which outlines each of their rights and responsibilities.
examples of what is included in the RTA
- 60 days notice must be given before a rent increase - tenant has the right to quiet enjoyment - the landlord mjust give permisssion to keep pets
quiet enjoyment
right for tenants to not be interrupted by the landlord unannounced
condition report
outlines the function and state of certain items in a property and any pre-existing damages
why is the condition report important?
prevents the tenants from being held liable for damage they did not create & protect landlords when tenants refuse to repair or deny causing damage
when is a condition report completed?
prior to moving in
what are some ways renters can handle landlord disputes?
- write to landlord about the issue (ensures a record) - complain to nsw civil & administrative appeals tribunal - have a witness confirm your issue & attempts to follow up
what should NOT be done when arguing with a landlord?
DO NOT stop paying rent or move out without notice - can result in eviction or loss of bond payment
pros of roommates
- various house members = various skills & resources from home - great way to make new friends & social networks - reduces living costs via sharing bills
cons of roommates
- arguments surrounding expenses and division of costs - arguments surrounding lifestyle factors e.g. cleaning, entertaining, use of kitchen, bathroom or TV
what is the best way to avoid roommates refusing to pay rent or utilities?
put all roommates names on the lease and utilities contracts so everyone is legally responsible
how can you maintain harmony in a sharehouse?
- have a kitty for shared payments - consider having your own connections where possible to avoid disputes - make a roster of chores
what is a kitty?
a central fund of money that has been contributed by a group of people (e.g. flatmates).
costs other than rent (examples)
bills/utilities, kitty, groceries, furniture, insurance, bond, removalists
a compulsory savings account that employers must contribute 10.5% of your income to- ensures you have money for retirement
strategies to minimise financial struggle
budgeting, superannuation, monitor spending
what is income tax?
a tax based on how much you earn that all people must pay. in aus, taken from your pay as you go, that is why it is compulsory to conduct a tax return.
what type of tax system is used in aus
a progressive tax system
promise of reimbursement in the case of loss; paid to people or companies so concerned about hazards that they have made prepayments to an insurance company
insurance premium
the amount of money an insured person pays to be covered by insurance. can increase due to various factors e.g. accidents, age, medical conditions
home vs contents insurance
home insurance protects the physical property whereas contents insurance protects the products inside of the home
what is the relationship between insurance claims and insurance premiums?
the more claims there are, the higher insurance premiums will be in order to pay for and cover all of these claims
what is renter's insurance?
like contents and can also provide somewhere to live if the property you are renting is damaged.
compulsory third party (green slip)
pays compensation if you kill or injure someone on the road- illegal to not have
third party property damage
pays compensation to others if you damage their property
comprehensive car insurance
compensates for loss or damage to your own vehicle as well as others.
life insurance
insurance paid to named beneficiaries when the insured person dies
health insurance
insurance that covers additional medical services not covered by medicare e.g. orthodontics
worker's compensation
compulsory form of insurance for all employers to provide money for any employees injured at work
public liability
covers firms for the high costs incurred if they are sued by members of the public who suffered injury or property damage as a result of their business.
marine insurance
covers boats and ships for accident damage
pluvial insurance
provides compensation loss of takings due to rain. functions such as outdoor sporting events and concerts are usually covered.
pet insurance
helps cover the cost of vet and hospital fees
insurance process
1. obtain and compare quotes 2. fill in proposal form (in full truth) 3. pay premium and insurance policy is issued 4. a renewal is issued annually 5. a claim form is completed any time you wish to seek compensation
what was traded in customary trading?
- goods that had social value e.g. pearl shells worn by powerful male tribe members
what international group did FN people trade with
Indonesian tribes, the Maccassans from Sulawesi, sailed to aus, traded tobacco pipes, beads, iron knives and canoes
where was a popular customary trading location?
Murray river
retail market
shops ➡️ consumers traded?: goods and services price: the price of the goods and services money: profit made from selling goods and services for cheaper than they cost to make
labour market
employees ➡️ employers traded?: labour price: wages/income salary money: employees sell work for income
financial market
banks ➡️ savers & borrowers traded?: money in form of loans and bank accounts price: interest money: banks charge interest on borrowers/invest money from bank accounts
fiscal policy
a government policy where they alter budget and taxation to influence the economy
how can the gov intervene in the market?
- federal budget - laws & policies to regulate consumers, society and the environment
online business
business that runs all or most of its business online e.g. frank green
on-demand business
business that uses mobile technology (apps) to maximise consumer convenience e.g. menulog
micro business
business with less than 5 employees e.g. local hairdresser
small business
business with 5-19 employees e.g.local ice cream shop
medium business
20-199 employees e.g. monte teaching staff
large business
business with 200+ employees
global business (TNC)
a large company that has branches in many countries e.g. McDonalds
offshore business
business that completes their functions in a different company (to take advantage of cheap labour and production) e.g. Kmart
government enterprise
government-owned and operated business for community services e.g. australia post
businesses that provide services to the community and do not earn a profit e.g. vinnies
external vs internal influences on a business
external influences are things that businesses CANNOT control whereas internal influences are thing that businesses can choose and control
examples of external influences
technological development, economic change, social change, gov decisions, competitive situation, globalisation
examples of internal influences
location, management & resources
what is an entrepreneur
someone with a new innovation/idea that actively seeks to promote and place that idea into action, CREATING A BUSINESS and making money from this
impact of innovation
a new invention that can bring new competitors & products into the market
corporate social responsibility
involves going above and beyond legal and financial implications when making business decisions
triple bottom line
when business considers the financial, social and environment consequences of its decisions, or more simply - people, planet, profit
benefits of CSR
- more attractive to consumers - more attractive to employees - can be a financial asset (e.g. tesla implementing electric vehicle made them more popular)
limitations of CSR
- increases costs e.g. paying higher wages, volunteer work, more expensive manufacturing or technology, paying for higher quality products
money that leaves the economy e.g. tax, savings and purchase of imports
money that enters the economy e.g. investment, gov expenditure, exports
impacts of economic growth
consumer confidence rises, spending increases, demand increases, production increases, unemployment decreases, incomes increase, firms increase prices (inflation)
inflation measure
measured by comparing changes in the consumer price index. the CPI represents the spending of a normal household basket of goods e.g. housing, food, education
what do RBA interest rates do?
they are percentages set by the gov to control economic growth. To slow the growth, the gov would increase the interest rates, to increase spending, they would lower the rates
how is economic growth measured?
GDP: the value of total production of goods and services in the economy, growth of 3-4% is acceptable
calculating GDP (aggregate demand)
AD = consumption + investment + gov spending + (exports - imports)
phases of the business cycle
peak/boom, expansion, contraction, trough, recession
indicators of a contraction
- less spending, production, wages, employment
law of demand
As prices increase, quantity demanded falls As prices decrease, quantity demanded rises
what does a change in price cause on the demand and supply curve?
A change in price causes a contraction or expansion in demand/supply – a movement along the demand/supply curve.
law of supply
As prices increase, quantity supplied rises As prices decrease, quantity supplied falls
market equilibrium
the point where demand = supply
equilibrium in the 5 sector economic model
leakages = injections S + T + M = I + GE + X
disequilibrium in the 5 sector economic model
when leakages do not equal injections S + T + M < I + GE + X - GOOD OR S + T + M > I + G E + X - BAD
price mechanism
refers to the forces of supply and demand in determining price and quantity of goods sold
what do factors other than price do to the supply & demand curves
the curves shift to the left (decrease in demand or supply) and right (increase in demand or supply)
examples for increases in demand
change in consumer tastes and preferences, complementary good becomes cheaper, prices expected to rise in future
examples for decrease in demand
change in consumer tastes and preferences, substitute good becomes cheaper, complementary good becomes more expensive
examples for increase in supply
increased efficiency in production, fall in the cost of production, increased number of suppliers
examples for decrease in supply
unfavourable climactic conditions, an outbreak of disease, increase in cost of production
all activities undertaken for the purpose of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a region or country
a severe contraction in the level of economic activity resulting in many business failures, high and sustained levels of unemployment and sometimes falling prices