when a change in one variable precipitates a change in another variable
an apparent connection or pattern between variables
Human Development Index (HDI)
measures life expectancy, birth and death rates, education, quality of life- standard of living in a country.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
the total value of goods and services produced in a country. This measures economic activity in a country in a given year and offers comparisons between countries internationally.
GDP per capita
GDP divided by the population of a country. (It gives a more accurate picture than GDP alone).
measures income inequality between different classes in a country. (A score greater than 0.40 means income inequality is a problem).
high GDP per capita and HDI rankings; industrialized countries with service-based economies. Formerly known as 1st and 2nd world countries.
emerging economies; based on production. Formerly 3rd world countries that are working towards industrialization or have uneven pockets of cities, agricultural areas and/or subsistence farming.
low GDP per capita and HDI rankings; that are primarily agricultural (and struggle with industrialization, problems with rapid urbanization, poverty, health issues, etc. infrastructure of transportation and communication within the country is weak. )
Least Developed countries
the poorest of the poor countries. A lot of the same characters as underdeveloped countries.
study of cases that contradict the pattern or are exceptions to the norm.
comparing similar cases that differ in the dependent variable.
comparing different cases that vary in the independent variable
The belief that a group of people has its own unique destiny, often including a desire for a separate state
a psychological sense of identity based on shared ethnicity, language, history or culture.
all individuals or institutions like the executive, legislative, judicial branches of gov't, police force, armed forces and political parties who can make public policy through direct action or political participation. Political institutions with a monopoly of force over a territory.
overthrow of the government based on broad popular support
a change in the leader brought about by a small group, often a military leader
Stable long lasting organizations that make formal political policies within the government, including 3 branches of government and bureaucracies.
the ability of a government to rule without internal or external influence.
the people's belief that the government has the right to rule
based on a fair and understandable system of laws that are followed and apply to everyone. Often written in a constitution.
the state is obeyed because there is a long tradition of it being obeyed
based on a ruler's magnetic personality
The ability of citizens to see what the government is doing
division over a policy issue
Cross cutting cleavages
brings different kinds of groups together, strengthening society. (For example, we might all be United as Americans against a foreign country even though we may have different genders, ages or racial backgrounds.)
exacerbate feeling of difference between 2 groups because they have conflicting or competing identities/ interests. Coinciding cleavages weaken society. (For example, racial tensions in the United States might divide Americans.)
a government in which the political system has not changed even though there have been different leaders
a government with both authoritarian and democratic elements
The transition from an authoritarian state to an illiberal democracy to a liberal democracy
A government with elections that are not completely free and fair or lacking some civil rights and liberties These characteristics exist but are flawed.
A government with free and fair elections, civil rights and liberties
A government where elections are not free and fair and civil rights and liberties are lacking
1)A party that fights a corrupt and crony elite;
2) lacks patience for the rule of law;
3) demands direct democracy;
4) pursues a more powerful state through police and military (common with right-wing populists) and nationalization of banks and big corporations (left-wing populists);
5)critical of immigration, free trade, globalization, and the institutions that represent those forces (EU and NATO);
6)and uses revolutionary language to promise dramatic upheaval.
A state led by religious rulers (like Iran)
all power is held by the central government and states'/regional power is not constitutionally protected
power is shared between the national/central and state governments and some state/ regional power is constitutionally protected
occurs when the national/ central government grants more power to states/regions. (This is often done in multi-ethnic countries to placate competing ethnic groups/ nations from complaining about lack of representation in government).
two houses of Congress. ( Upper house like US Senate/UK House of Lords and a lower house like US House of Representatives/ UK House of Commons).
First Past The Post/Single Member District
awards one seat to the candidate with the most votes in a district
awards seats to political parties based on the percentage of votes received; there may be a threshold for getting seats
Common law systems
judges interpret laws and their rulings are used by courts to make future decisions. These court decisions are written down and serve as precedent for future cases.
concept that judicial laws have the force of law
is the ability of a Supreme Court to overturn a law or executive action if it is unconstitutional. (A country with judicial review is considered stronger than a country without it. This often indicates that there are checks and balances between the branches of government).
Code law/Civil Law systems
based on rules written by the legislature
written sets of laws often in a constitution or like a bill of rights; basically a systematic list of laws that are enforceable by law
are protections granted by the government to prevent discrimination against groups, like ethnic or religious minorities and women
protect individuals from too government infringement. (For example, free speech would allow citizens to criticize government policies/actions without fear of punishment. )
consists of voluntary associations outside of government control which strengthen society like book clubs, soccer leagues, etc. (These groups may discuss political issues that relate to them but they don't have to. People belong to these groups because of their common hobbies. )
occur when ordinary citizens push for reform.
A measure sent by the legislature to the citizens for approval.
The process for selecting current and potential leaders, including formal and informal power structures
an individual's belief system about the role of government
the process through which an individual acquires his or her political beliefs and behaviors
the shared beliefs of a group of people
favors the status quo/conservatives
favors change (usually favor social program)
extreme and want to go back to the past
favor freedom in the economy and in civil rights and liberties
increasing interconnectedness of the world
the relationship between government policies and the economy
the move to a free market by reducing tariffs, trade barriers, and government control over the economy
set wages, production, and prices based on supply and demand with less government interference
the government makes decisions regarding wages, prices, and production, and private property is limited
when the government buys off its critics
when large businesses and labor unions are brought into the policymaking process. This limits pluralism because small actors are left out
when many groups compete in policymaking
Societies in which basic needs are met and citizens can concentrate on higher goals, like the environment
programs require countries to increase taxes and cut spending (austerity measures) to improve budgets
the government provides support to citizens, such as unemployment benefits and health care
a system of government based on the writings of Karl Marx in which the stated goal is economic equality (This type of government may use characteristics of a welfare state.)
The idea that colonial rule left a legacy of political and economic dependence making it difficult for former colonies to improve their economies and democratize
States that derive a significant portion of their revenues from rent (such as renting land to oil companies)
seeks to explain political outcomes by looking at the effects of individual political actors and by gaining an understanding of their decision-making process
focuses on how individuals act strategically in an attempt to achieve goals that maximize their interests
focuses on specific features of the political world
The historical development of a state, often marked by major stages, key events, or turning points (critical junctures) that influence the contemporary character of the state.
the sale of state-owned enterprise to private company
changes over time in an economy that enhance its productive capacity and improve society's prosperity
Government takes over existing private companies and runs them as state-owned enterprises
result of dissolving bonds and interconnections that normally bond political actors or units together
cons of globalization
- erosion of state sovereignty
- increased pressure to respond to global norms increased pressure for autonomy
- increased vulnerability to choices or actions of others
- need to increase sensitivity of events
- problems that were once containable thru boarders now spread more easily
- labor and capital in poorer countries are more easily exploited (econ growth but not development) don't benefit as much as home countries
- increase pressure to compete globally
- costs of rapid urbanization + industrialization (pollution and crimes)gender inequality
- americanization and threats to traditional cultures
Pros of globalization
- more interactions
- more need to cooperate
- reductions in trade and investment barriers, and the movement of physical human capital makes economic transactions more efficient and profitable rapid econ growth
- consumers gain access to a global array of products
- ability to more easily access info, innovation, technology and capital
- development of regional and global institutions to cope with international problems
- spread of democracy and human rights
- increased ability to organize or spread political message across boarders
- empowerment of actors rather than states
- an evolving sense of global citizenship