BIO 281 CH. 9: blood

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Functions of the blood include...
- transportation of substances - protection
pigment protein that gives red blood cells their characteristic color
Blood turns ____ when hemoglobin binds to __, and turns dark red when it binds to __.
red; dark red
- 55% of whole blood - H2O, proteins, electrolytes, hormones, and nutrients - least dense
buffy coat
- leukocytes and platelets - <1% of whole blood
- RBC - 45% of whole blood - most dense
what is the source of plasma water?
ingested water
what is the source of plasma protein?
the liver
what is the source of blood cells?
bone marrow
What is the life span of RBC?
120 days
Blood prevents blood loss by...
- plasma proteins and platelets - clot formation
Blood prevents infection by...
- synthesizing/utilizing antibodies - complement proteins - activating WBC to defend the body against foreign invaders
- WBC - 0.1% of all blood cells - larger than RBC
2 groups of leukocytes
- granulocytes (contains granules) - agranulocytes (lacks granules)
leukocytes that can engulf foreign substances for defense (include neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes)
Monocytes develop into ___ (constantly removes) and travel longer distances to find foreign substances.
(platelets) critical in forming platelet plugs in hemostasis along with fibrinogen, in forming blood clots
maintains osmotic pressure in blood and body fluids
protein transporters (ex. steroid hormones)
___ in converted into fibrins in the formation of a blood clot
very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)
- high amount of triglyceride - transports triglycerides to tissues synthesized in the liver from carbohydrates to adipose cells (bad cholesterol)
low density lipoprotein (LDL)
- high amount of cholesterol - delivers cholesterol to various cells, including liver cells (bad cholesterol)
high density lipoprotein (HDL)
good cholesterol
What are the major events in RBC destruction?
1) squeezing through the capillaries of active tissue damages red blood cells 2) macrophages in the liver & spleen phagocytize damaged red blood cells 3) hemoglobin from the red blood cells is decomposed into heme and globin 4) heme is decomposed into iron and biliverdin (bile pigment) 5) iron is made available for reuse in the synthesis of new hemoglobin or is stored in the liver as ferritin 6) some biliverdin is converted into bilirubin 7) biliverdin and bilirubin are excreted in bile as bile pigments
the stoppage of bleeding
hemostasis extrinsic clotting mechanism
triggered when blood contacts damaged tissues
intrinsic clotting mechanism
triggered when blood contacts a foreign surface
name 4 clotting factors
1) fibrinogen 2) prothrombin 3) tissue thromboplastin 4) calcium
what are the 4 possible blood types in ABO blood grouping system
- type A - type B - type AB - type O
The universal donor is ____
type 0
The universal recipeint is ___
type AB