APUSH Chapter 3

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Washington Presidency
He shaped the role: set boundaries Elected unanimously twice Cabinet system: A small team of advisors to aid his decisions 2 terms
What did Washington do?
Washington's Cabinet
Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War: Henry Knox Attorney General: Edmund Randolph VP: John Adams
Hamilton's Vision
Strong central gov Becoming an Industrial nation to help globalize
Hamilton Supporters
Banks, businesses, and wealthy people
Jefferson's Vision
Thinks that central gov is tyranny waiting to happen STATES RIGHTS> federal gov Opposed Hamilton in every way Vision: Society of small farmers
Political Parties
Federalists: 1st organized party Democratic-Republicans
Hamilton: Constitutional Considerations
Loose Interpretation Focus on what is permitted rather than restricted
Jefferson: Constitutional Considerations
Strict Interpretation Focus on what is restricted rather than permitted
Necessary and Proper Clause
What Hamilton used for justifying loose interpretation
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Objective 1: Strengthen National Credit-provides unity Objective 2: Raise Revenue to pay Revolutionary War debts Objective 3: Proposed BANK OF US
How does Hamilton raise revenue?
1. Develop a national currency 2. Put tariffs on foreign items
Why does Hamilton want to pay back the Revolutionary War dept?
He says that it sets the precedent for other nations to trust them: Helps them engage in trade
Washington Abroad
1. Proclamation of Neutrality(1793) 2. Jay's Treaty (1794) 3. Pinckney's Treaty(1795)
Proclamation of Neutrality: Hamilton
Hamilton said that they should not support the French because they only agreed to help the old French government in the war, not the revolution. Federalists support him
Proclamation of Neutrality: Jefferson
He thinks that we should repay them for helping the U.S; He's sympathetic Gets support from the Democratic Republicans
Jay’s Treaty
Between America and Britain Tanked his reputation because it’s an agreement with Britain
Jay’s Treaty causes: Britain
Impressed U.S sailors Occupied forts on U.S territory
Jay’s Treaty Causes: America
Harassed former Loyalists Didn’t pay back war debts
Pinckney’s Treaty Cause
Spain was scared of the U.S and Britain treaty
Pinckney’s Treaty Effect
Spain gave America everything they wanted ALLOWED THEM TO TAKE GOODS DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER
Whiskey Rebellion
Excise tax angers farmers: makes them tar and feather tax collectors Washington sends army to Massachusetts; no deaths
Whiskey Rebellion Impact
Teaches people that they have the right to protest, not revolt. If they want to change a law, they can vote. Tax sticked around
Washington's Farewell
Printed on newspaper; Warned the nation of 3 problems 1. Political parties-Warned against them: said it was disunity 2. Sectionalism-Avoids being together 3. Foreign Entanglement: Doesn't like permanent alliances
John Adams
Doesn't get same support as Washington; made fun of for being bald and short XYZ Affair Trio of Acts 1. Alien 2.Sedition 3.Naturalization
XYZ Affair
France impressing U.S vessels
Trio of Acts
1. Alien-deport or detain any “alien” deemed dangerous 2.Sedition-limit criticism of president and congress 3.Naturalization-14 years for alien to become citizen
Jefferson Strikes back
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions -The nullification omen
Election of 1800
Jefferson (DR), Burr (DR), Adams (F) Whispering Campaign- Rumors spread to chip away at each candidate's reputation Tie decided by House of Reps. -People listened to what Hamilton said: He endorsed Jefferson
Revolution of 1800
Smooth transfer of power to Jefferson First party transfer Repeal, Replace, Reduce, Restraint
Excise taxes, especially on whiskey
Laws that he didn't like; 5 years instead of 14 to become a citizen from an immigrant
Reduce size of the military to save money
Jefferson keeps most of the laws made by Adams and Washington UPHOLDS NEUTRALITY
Louisiana Purchase
France wants out of America Jefferson spends 15 million on all of French America Adds 1/3 of U.S
Jefferson's dilemma
Nothing in the Constitution said he could buy land Follows loose interpretation to justify himself
Lewis and Clark
Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) Goals: science, commercial, and diplomatic Diplomatic: Tells Lewis and Clark to establish good relationships Commercial: Money
Jefferson's 2nd Term
Easy win in 1804 Napoleonic Wars -More ocean trouble Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (1807) -Caused Embargo Act of 1807
Embargo Act of 1807
A trade ban on ALL FOREIGN GOODS Raises American production Reminds people that America is a young nation FULLY ISOLATED THE US
The Marshall Court
Adams’ “Midnight judges” -Dem-Reps cry foul Chief Justice John Marshall “Washington of the Supreme Court” LAST THING FEDERALISTS DO
James Madison
Jefferson’s pick in 1808 election Starts War Nonintercourse Act(1809) Macon’s Bill #2
Nonintercourse Act of 1809
Said that the U.S would not trade with or interfere in Napoleons wars betweeen Britain and France
Macon’s Bill No. 2
U.S said that they would lift embargo on either Britain or France depending on who stopped impressing U.S Vessels
Macon’s Bill No.2: Napoleon
Says that he will stop impressing vessels- U.S lifts embargo Didn’t stop impressing vessels- Backfired on U.S.
Madison War Causes
Impressment National honor Native Americans Desire for Canada War Hawks
Madison War Effects
Treaty of Ghent Surging nationalism Int. respect too Rise in Industry POINTLESS WAR
Treaty of Ghent
Basically restored the territory of U.S and Canada to what it was before. The status quo stays the same Leads to demilitarization of Great Lakes
international respect
Other countries respected them; Trade grew as a result
Federalist Fallout
Hartford Convention: Radical Federalists call for succession Federalism seen as unpatriotic Don’t win elextions anymore
James Monroe
Last founding father president DR: “Era of Good Feelings” Was lieutenant in Continental Army
Era of Good Feelings
No political disputes because the Democratic Republicans were the only prominent party; undisputed power
Threats to National Inity
Slavery: Allowed or not in new territories? Missouri Tallmadge Amendment Henry Clay’s Missouri Compromise (1820)
Tallmadge Amendment
Slavery stopped in Missouri; phased out
Missouri Compromise
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories. West of the Missouri=No slavery
Nationalism and Foreign Policy
Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817) Treaty of 1818 Florida Purchase Treaty (1819) Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)
Deals with demilitarizing the Great Lakes; limits the navy on them for US and UK
Treaty of 1818
Formalizes border between U.S and Canada U.S and UK both give some land Agree to joint management of the Oregon territory for economy
Florida Purchase Treaty (1819)
Bought Florida
Monroe Doctrine
American foreign policy that tells European powers that they can't colonize North and South America anymore.
Monroe Doctrine Impact
Symbolic of the U.S growing up. British help them regulate it. They start to develop some influence
Market Revolution
linking regional industries together → massive economic gain All support each other
Regional economies shift:
INTERCONNECTED SPECIALIZED: North=manufacturing, West=food crops, South=cotton/ cash crops BIGGER: Sectors can grow because they have ability to focus on one thing
Taking goods to market, taking materials to factories, taking workings to both Roads, Canals, Steamships, Railroads
Cumberland Road (1850)-First interstate road to be fully paved; From Maryland to Illinois
-Erie Canal (1825): 1st Canal; From Buntalk NY to Albany NY
-Two-way travel
Started becoming prominent in late 1800s -Much faster -Reason for Western Development
Increasing Population for Cheap Labor
High birth rates a new wave of immigrants Consequences -Cheap labor -Nativism
High birth rates
Cheap, realistic prices on food allow for stability
new wave of immigrants
Mostly Irish people and Germans immigrating
Cheap Labor-Factory owners love it, workers hate it Nativism: Creates anti-immigrant ppl bc ppl don't want to lose their job\ Irish Catholics hated the most
Under One Roof
Factory System All elements of production under one roof -peak efficiency Poor working conditions -long days, no labor laws, etc.
Mother Government
Patent Office -Encourages innovators to make builders motivated Limited Liability -Corporations appear; makes investing safer- only responsible for your share Tariff of 1816
Tariff of 1816
Purpose is to protect U.S industry by preventing the purchase of foreign goods
Market Impact
Social/economic classes established Labor Unions -Commonwealth vs. Hunt (1842) Women -Cult of Domesticity Slavery solidified
Social/economic classes
Everyone makes money, some a lot more than others; the rich get richer Wealth Gap rises
Labor Unions
Become legal as long as they are peaceful -Commonwealth vs. Hunt (1842): Supreme Court finally allows labor Unions
Cult of Domesticity -Idea that women should stay inside: is best suited for household/traditional activities
Slavery solidified
Industrialization causes the profitableness of cotton to rise Southerners couldn't give it up: too integral to the economy
Era of the Common Man
Politics for every(white)one -No more property qualification “King Caucus” → party conventions Popular president election-Many ppl run Two-Party system return- Other competitive parties Popular campaigns: door to door, etc. Voting Numbers -350,000 votes for 1824 pres.; 2.4 mil by 1840
Election of 1824
Adams v. Jackson v. Clay v. Crawford Campaigns on reputation No majority → House of Rep. tie breaker “Corrupt Bargain”
Corrupt Bargain
John Quincy Adams gets support from Clay -In turn, Clay becomes secretary of state Jackson supporters furious- think that he got robbed/ shouldn't be legal to do that
Election of 1828
Modern Mudslinging- Candidates roasting the shit out of each other Jackson Wins
Andrew Jackson
Spoils System- government jobs for loyal party members “Kitchen cabinet” Peggy Eaton Affair
Peggy Eaton Affair
Not fit as a “cabinet wife” -Defended by Jackson, ostracized by wives of his cabinet -Cabinet resigns -VP Calhoun becomes national anti-Jackson figure
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff of 1828 - South hated South Carolina Exposition -Unconstitutional and nullifiable Jackson responds
Jackson's Response
Force Bill: He goes into SC and uses military strength to make them stop nullifying the tariffs Tariff of 1883: Tariff price reduced to a more agreeable amount
New Political Party Limited gov. Free trade (no tariffs) Support: South, West, farmers, urban workers
New Political Party Tariffs, gov. spending on improvements, banks Support: New England, middle and upper-class urbanites
West benefis
Presented opportunity: economy and nationalism More people, more money, more growth
Westward Expansion: Positive Perspective
Manifest Destiny -Americans are special → race: Think that they are bringing freedom -Divine purpose of U.S. → religion -Expand democracy → superiority: Not democratic=lesser Quest for land and ideals are combined
Westward Expansion: Negative Perspective
Native American lands stolen American South → “Five Civilized Tribes”: Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, Seminole -Indian Removal Act (1830) --Trail of Tears
Indian Removal Act (1830)
Indians need to either move West and keep their culture or stay on their native land and blend into American culture. Trail of Tears: Cherokee -Big part of Jackson's presidency
Second Great Awakening -Reaction to Enlightenment Era 1. Prespytarian → Upstate New York -“New Measures” -Hard work 2. Methodist and Baptist → South -Camp Meetings 3. Mormons → West NY to Utah -Unique America religion
Methodist and Baptist
Camp meetings brought thousands Music and singing and overwhelming religiosity
1830 Joseph Smith founds religion and is murdered; Brigham Young leads them to Utah to avoid persecution from US gov. -Place USA on divine pedestal; Biblical promise land; Constitution result of divine inspiration
Transcendentalism → Look inward for answers; society corrupts -Individualistic, self-reliance, independent thinker Ralph Waldo Emerson -Forget Europe Henry David Thoreau -“Walden” -“On Civil Disobedience”
Look inward for answers; society corrupts - the origin of American individualism: Original New England philosophy
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Forget Europe- read American literature about American themes -Promotes nationalism
Henry David Thoreau
Walden → lives in the woods for two years; simple living and self-reliance; creates appreciation for nature On Civil Disobedience → Fighting for what is moral, not legal
Alcohol -American Temperance Society Prison -Reform as well as punish Women’s Rights -Seneca Falls Convention (1848) -Declaration of Sentiments Public Education -Tax supported public education -Fear of “republic of dunces”
Say that is bad American Temperance Society- preached total abstinence from alcohol
Current prison seen as immoral -reform as well as punish: Try to make prisoners become better people
Women’s Rights
Church positions; gender norms solidified Seneca Falls Convention (1848)- Convention for women's rights -Declaration of Sentiments: Showed the inequality between men and women
Public Education
Tax supported public education Fear of “republic of dunces”