Biology Exam 2 part 1

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109 Terms
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What are some characteristics of life?
reproduction, movement, response to external stimuli. composed of cells, maintain homeostasis, metabolism
Maintenance of a constant internal environment despite changes in external environment
Why are zombie not alive?
don't grow, respond to limited stimuli, limited homeostasis does not promote healing, eat but do not metabolize
Why are mules not "alive"?
can't reproduce, no evolution of populations,
What are the characteristic of a virus?
common set of biological molecules, reproduce by infecting cells of other organism, no metabolism, no homeostasis
Which substance is a molecule rather than an element?
carbon dioxide, made up of atoms combined together, one carbon two oxygen
fundamental forms of matter, composed of atoms that can not be broken down by normal means
smallest unit of an element
Positive Charge
Neutral=no charge
negative charge
Neutral Atom
equal numbers of protons and neutrons
atoms with a difference in number of protons and electrons
Why is water able to dissolve substances so well?
waters polarity attracts other polar molecules
What type of chemical bond shown in this diagram causes different water molecules to be attracted to one another?
Hydrogen bonds
is a molecule, a good solvent, facilitates chemical reactions, moderates temperature
two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
What makes up a water molecule?
2 hydrogen, 1 oxygen
Hydrogen Bonding
weak attraction between molecules, slight negative oxygen attracted to slightly positive hydrogen
Nonpolar molecules
electrons shared equally
water fearing, molecules don't dissolve in water
a chemical mixture
a substance that dissolves in a solvent
substance that dissolves solute
Are macromolecules hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
What can water's polar structure not disolve?
nonpolar (hydrophobic) molecules
Chemical Reactions
changes in chemical composition of substances
starting materials in a chemical reaction
result of chemical reaction
Why can water can absorb a lot of heat?
hydrogen bonds are disrupted first, heat raises water temperature
Bad Science
alternate hypothesis not explored, scientific method not followed, bias not reduced/eliminated
information presented as science but does not hold up to scientific scrutiny
What's an example of Pseudoscience?
the bermuda triangle
What might be a cause for the "mysterious" ship/plane disapearences in the bermuda triangle?
bubbles reduce density of water, causing ships to sink, methane sets on fire from lightning, causing planes to go down
Organic Chemistry
chemistry pertaining to biology
Carbon Containing Molecules
carbon interacts with elements to produce complex molecules
Covalent Bonds
share electrons
single bonds
one pair of electrons
double bonds
two pairs of electrons
Ionic Bond
electrons transferred between atoms
How many bonds can carbon form?
four bonds
What category of macromolecules includes testosterone and estrogen?
large organic cells, found in living organisms
What can macromolecules be found in?
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Carbohydrates formula and use
Carbon oxygen and hydrogen (CH2O), major source of energy for cells
What are carbohydrates made of?
sugar subunits
required for a wide variety of processes, structural component of cells, muscles made of protein
proteins that accelerate chemical reactions that build and break molecules in cells
What is protein made of?
amino acid
what are Amino Acids made of?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
short amino acid chain
long amino acid chain
one or more polypeptide (usually >50 amino acids)
What do different amino acid combinations equal?
different shapes and properties for proteins
comprised mostly of hydrocarbons, partially or entirely hydrophobic
What are the three types of lipids?
fats, steroids, phospholipids
3 carbon skeleton and 3 fatty acid tails
4 fused carbon rings, ex. cholesterol, sex horomones
3 carbon skeleton and 2 fatty acid tails and a phosphate head group
What is special about phospholipids?
hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail
Nucleic Acids
made of nucleotide monomer subunits
sugar+phosphate+nitrogenous base
ribonucleic acid, ribose sugar, single stranded, helps cells make proteins
deoxyribonucleic acid, stores genetic info, deoxyribose sugar, rungs of nitrogen base pairs
What are the four complementary nitrogen bases?
adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
Bases form hydrogens with a complimentary base?
A bonds with T G bonds with C
True or False: Scientific evidence shows that the animo acid tryptophan in turk is what makes you drowsy on thanksgiving.
Theory of evolution
explains how a singular ancestor 4 billion years ago gave rise to all life
All living things are made up of what?
Bacteria, small, microscopic, genetic material not in a nucleus, no organelles, cell walls (outside cell membrane)
Larger, complex, genetic material in nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, some have cell walls (fungi and plants)
What lead to all species on earth?
our common ancestor from 4 billion years ago
About how many species are there?
1 trillion
Natural Selection
process of gradual change that occurs over time, individual organisms vary from each other
What is the main mechanism behind evolution?
natural selection
Evolution misconceptions
evolution is not a series of steps leading to increased complexity, there us no pressure on "lower" organisms that led to evolution of higher organisms
What is the only cell visible to the human eye?
ovum, female egg cell
Average number of human cells in a person
30 trillion
how many pounds of bacteria are on you right now?
3-5 pounds
What did the Miller-Urey Experiment discover?
Experimentally produced a bunch of organic molecules, then used those to make more molecules and amino acids
Karolina Sputova and Irep Gozen
Protocells spontaneously form of phospholipids on a mineral surface, inside where smaller bubbles (organelles), take up dyes (membrane transport)
RNA world hypothesis
self replicating RNA existed before evolution of DNA and Proteins
Last Universal common ancestor
most recent population of organisms from which all organisms descended
layered sedimentary formations created by photosynthetic bacteria
fossils of microscopic life
What is found in both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes?
Plasma Membrane and cell wall (think of plants)
bacteria and archaea
amoeba, yeast, multicellular plants, fungi, and animals
What are the common traits of ALL cells?
plasma membrane, cytoplasm, RNA and DNA, ribosomes
includes cytosol and organelles
watery, jelly like substance with salts and enzymes
perform specific functions required by the cell, and work with other organelles (only in eukaryotes)
Plasma Membranhe
encloses all cells, determines materials to be allowed in or out, semi permeable
Embedded proteins
help transport substances through the plasma membrane, made of phospholipid bilayer
Phospholipid bilayer
hydrophobic tails interact with each other and keep the membrane together, exclude water, hydrophilic head maximize exposure to water
What organelle is only found in plant cells?
Cell Walls
provide extra protection outside the plasma membrane for plants, fungi and bacteria, rich in polysaccharides cellulose, provides structural support
holds chromatin in eukaryotic cells; surrounded by nuclear envelope; nuclear pores regulate traffic
synthesizes ribosomes, inside of the nucleus
produces energy through cellular respiration
only found in plant cells, uses un energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars through photosynthesis
contains digestive enzymes to recycle molecules
help to assemble proteins; free floating or attached to ER
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
membrane network with ribosomes attached for protein synthesis
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
does NOT have ribosomes, involved in lipid synthesis or detoxification
Golgi Apparatus
modifies, sorts, and packages proteins
move chromosomes during cell division (only in animal cells)
Cytoskeletal Elements
form cytoskeleton for maintaining shape and structural support, other structures anchored to them, like the mitochondria
Central Vacuole
stores water, sugars, and pigments in ONLY plant cells