A group of small coastal towns in Germany that included over 80 cities and specialized in trade. Traded with the Flanders Fleet of Venice, but they broke those ties and the Hansa fell.
Place of peasants and townspeople in early renaissance
Decline on manorialism (peasant dependence of lords and their land) and serfdom. Increase in hired workers instead while peasants became legally free.
Declined in Italy by end of 15th century but the Portuguese continued to import 140,000 slaves between 1444-1505 from eastern Mediterranean, Black Sea region, Africa, and Spain.
Five major Italian city states
Milan, Venice, Florence, Naples, and the Papal State. The city-states were independent of eachother.
The center of the Italian Renaissance, run by the Medici family.
Peace of Lodi
Agreement signed by Florence, Naples, and Milan to end the War of Lombardy between Milan (Visconti) and Venice.
the cultural movement of the Renaissance; based on classical studies in order to understand human nature and learn skill. Opened humanist schools funded by the wealthy that focused on creating a strong foundation for business, politics, and military.
Father of humanism - rejected scholastic philosophy and emphasized the classics. - "The Ascent of Mount Ventoux"
Philosopher and founder of modern poli-sci, he wrote The Prince which advises the statecraft to unite Italy. Believed people are ungrateful and changeable and eager for gain. Great to be loved, better to be feared - the end justifies the means.
invented movable metal type (1445-1450) - the first fullwork every printed (in 1456) was the Mazarin Bible
Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519)
Mona Lisa - Realism and Idealism
School of Athens - ideal of beauty
David - Divine beauty
Jan Van Eyck (1471-1578)
The Arnolfini Portrait - Oil paint in range of colors and realism.
Albrecht DÜrer (1471-1578)
Perspective and proportion.
Francesco Guicciardini (1483-1540)
developed modern analytical historiography
Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510)
Greek and Roman Mythology - Primavera
Donato di Donatello (1386-1466)
John Wyclif (1328-1384)
No basis of papal claims to lands.
John Hus (1374-1415)
calls to end worldliness and clergy corruption - first church reformer - burned at the stake
Council of Constance (1414-1417)
Sacrosenta (authority from God) and Frequens (decree to meet frequently)
Pope Pius II
execrabilis (condemned appeals to a council over the head of pope as heretical)
Pope Julius II (1503-1513)
Warrior pope - Basilica of saint peters.
Pope Sixtus (1474-1484)
Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503)
Debauchery and sensuality
Renaissance in Northern Italy
Started because of the urbanization and wealth accumulated from trade.
Wealthy Merchant Oligarchies
grabbed power in northern italy city states
They dominated. Gained most of their wealth in banking. They financed libraries, churches, platonic academy of philosophy, and commissioned a lot of art. Main members: Cosimo, Piero, and Lorenzo the Magnificent.
Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529)
- The Universal Human - Wrote "The Courtier" to explain how upperclass men/women could find success as courtiers.
geometric method - create depth on 2d surface
Realistic blending of light and shading for volume
Flat/rigid figures in a horizontal line: create symmetry.
Christine De Pizan (1364-1430)
First known woman author
Isabella D'Este (1475-1539)
art patron withe great renaissance collection, most famous woman of the renaissance.
study of classical sources with christian interpretations that called for reform of Christianity.
Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)
Prince of humanists. He edited the works of church fathers and produced Greek/Latin editions of the New Testament.
Thomas More (1478-1536)
English scholar, author, lawyer, and statesman. Lord chancellor under Henry VIII. Wrote "Utopia" - an imaginary society w/ religious tolerance, socialism, and education for everyone. Disagreed with English split from church and was beheaded
Hans Holbein The Younger (1497-1543)
Realistic portraits of Henry VII and Thomas More
income from estates, vassals, and taxing towns, merchants, and peasants. Had professional armies paid by treasury. The government became more centralized, and there was more education and loyalty to the middle class.
Charles VII (reign: 1422-1461)
French king: ended the hundred years war. he increased financial power by taxing and created permanant royal armies.
Louis XI (reign 1461-1483)
French king: built on Charles VII by inreasing the army and promoting industries such as silk weaving.
Francis I (reign: 1515-1547)
French king: negotiated with Pope Leo X (concordat of Bologna) and authorized kings to nominate bishops, abbots, and high church officials.
Henry VII (reign 1485-1509)
English king: Created the Star Chamber which was a court to try prominent nobles. he extended Royal authority into local shires and increased merchant marine industry.
Ferdinand (reign. 1479-1515) and Isabella (1474-1504)
Spanish rulers: Union of the iberian peninsula's two most powerful royal houses. Decreased size of royal council and # of nobles. Conquered Grenade. Expelled jews in 1493 and Muslims in 1502 from Spain.
- Obsessed with salvation
- Against Johann Tetzel's selling of indulgences (95 theses)
- Excommunicated from Catholic church ... creates protestant sect of Christianity
- Encouraged violent smothering of German Peasant Wars; "Against the murderous, thieving hordes of peasants"
Lutheranism Key Beliefs
- The Bible is the chief guide for religious truth
- salvation can be achieved by faith alone
- the church consists of a priesthood of all believers
- all vocations have equal merit
- Created by Martin Luther
- Government/States controlled the church
- Spread to North and East Germany
- King of spain and holy roman emperor
- Fought Hapsburg-Valois wars w/ Francis I of France (which stopped him from dealing with rise of lutheranism)
- Attacked Rome when the Pope sided with Francis I
Battle of Mohacs
Led by Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Turks gained control of most of Turkey and some of Austria in 1525.
-After Charles V threatened Lutherans to rejoin Catholic Church, princes and cities created Schmalkaldic League.
- Lutherans are initially defeated at the Battle of Muhlberg
- Lutherans allied with King Henry III of France and were granted the Peace of Augsburg by Ferdinand (Charles' brother).
Peace of Augsburg
Lutheranism was granted equal legal standing w/ Catholicism and individual leaders could decide the religion of the people in their region.
overthrows and replaces Swedish king, introduces Lutheran reformation in his country: Swedish Lutheran National Church.
- Cathedral priest in the Great Minster of Zurich and spread reformation in Switzerland.
Swiss protestants and German protestants tried to make an alliance but could not over a disagreement abt the Lord's Supper
Swiss Civil War of 1531
Swiss Catholic Cantons warred with Swiss Protestant Cantons. Catholic Cantons captured Zwingli, cup him up, and burned him.
- Against state-run churches
- Wanted to go back to early christianity
- Prosecuted until they created a haven (New Jerusalem) in the city of Munster.
- In 1535 Catholics + Lutherans reclaim the city
King Henry VIII
- Wanted an annulment from his 25 year marriage to Catherine of Aragon
- Pope wouldn't grant it in order to not anger Catherine's nephew Charles V
- Through the Act of Supremacy he created the Church of England, with him as the supreme head of the church.
- Treason Act made it punishable by death to deny that the king was the supreme head
German Peasants' War
- Peasants support Luther
- They are angry with nobles who control land/rent
-Luther urges nobles to crush peasants - rebellion is always wrong
English Rulers in terms of the Church
- Henry VII split England from the Catholic Church
- Henry's 8 y/o son, Edward VI, had a council rule for him which moved the Church of England in a more protestant direction
- Mary I tried to restore Roman Catholicism but England became more protestant instead. - Repealed Act of Supremacy
- Elizabeth I - wanted to reunite England - brought prosperity. - reinstated Act of Supremacy + Act of Uniformity. Elizebethan Settlement: restored Church of England. "Golden Age of Elizabeth"
John Calvin & Calvinism
- Published "The Institute of Christian Religion" which secured him as a leader of Protestantism.
- Believed in the absolute sovereignty of God and predetermination.
- Very few will be saved: The Elect
- Church dominates via Theorcracy
- City of Saints: Geneva: regulated life
- By John Calvin
- A church constitution that created a church government with clergy and layman.
- Created The Consistory: court to establish moral discipline, using public penance and excommunication to enforce doctrinal purity on Genevans.
Pope Paul III
-- Enforced strict moral standards
- Appointed reform-minded people and helped stared the counter-reformation (reform within the Catholic Church).
- Established Roman Inquisition to disallow doctrinal errors
Council of Trent
a council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions. They rejected Luther's doctrine, salvation from both faith and good work, no more indulgences, forbade the sale of church offices, and bishops must live in the district they serve.
- "Society of Jesus" founded by Ignatius of Loyola
- Spiritual army with goals to found schools for boys, spread christianity abroad, and combat protestantism.
- Spanish King; was left Spain, Milan, Naples, and the Netherlands by his father.
- Goals: to advance Spanish power, spread Catholicism, and defeat ottoman Turks.
- Enforced inquisition; riots broke out and he sent Duke of Alva to put it down, 1000s are killed.
- Tried to overthrow English Queen Elizabeth but failed.
Battle of Lepanto
Spanish/Venetian fleet defeat Turkish navy at Lepanto off the coast of Greece.
- French Calvinists
- 2/5-1/2 of nobility
- Highly prosecuted until the Edict of Nantes
Saint Bartholomew's Dat Massacre
- Catholics kill 1,000s of Huguenots over 3 days
- Start 15 years of religious civil war.
Edict of Nantes
- passed by Henry of Navarre
- toleration of calvinists and right of protestants.
first nationalists - believed unity of France was more important than religion.
30 years war
- Protestant Union vs Catholic League
- France supported protestants to stop Germany from uniting
- Bohemian Phase: Catholics gain control in Bohemia
- Danish Phase: Catholic Forces crush protestants
- Swedish Phase: Protestants fight back and prevent German unification
- French Phase: Burning of German farms
- Consequences: 1/3 of the German population wiped out and commerce suffers.
- Reformation within Catholic Church
Pope Paul IV
- Increased power of inquisition and banned books from Catholics.
War of the Henries
- Henry Duke of Guize siezed paris and forced Henry III to make him Chief Minister.
- Henry III assassinated him and teamed up with Henry of Navarre to crush the Catholic Holy League (Ultra Catholics)
- Henry III was assassinated by a monk and Henry of Navarre became king
Henry of Navarre
- Originally a Calvinist
- Promised to Convert to Christianity to escape massacre (didn't)
- Converted when he became King
- Ended French Wars of Religion
- Instituted Edict of Nantes - allowed Huguenots to Worship
The renaissance revitalized curiosity through increase knowledge of...
Math, Astronomy, and Geography.
Eastern Goods sought out by crusaders
Indian pepper, chinese ginger, and Maluku clove and nutmeg.
Reasons for Crusades
Demand > Supply for goods
Trade routes were controlled by Muslims/Venetians
Increased European demand for Sugar
invented in China in 1050 BCE, was improved upon during the Age of Exploration and allowed for increase in sea navigation.
device that calculates latitude using stars and the horizon
Spain/Portugal + Euro sought to "reconquer" North Africa which had become mostly occupied by Muslims.
"The Navigator" - Portugese - expanded maritime exploration along African coast. Made trading posts for gold and slaves. - goals were to seek christian kingdoms to ally against muslims, increase trade for portugal, and spread christianity
portuegese: rounder Cape of Good Hope (tip of Africa).
Vasco Da Gama
Portuegese - Journey to Malabar Coast (India) brought back pepper and cinnamon worth 60 times the cost of the voyage.
"Discovered" Brazil. Returned to Portugal w/ 300,000 pounds of spice.
Age of Exploration Major Shifts
- Ended muslim/venetian monopolies in trade w/ Asia
- Focused on protecting trade routs vs conquering
- Wanted to grow atlantic trade
Spanish - accidently arrives in Caribben, thinks he's in Asia. Sparks spanish conquest and european settlement of america. Mass genocide of indigenous people
conquers aztec empire in mexico
Conquers the Inca Empire in peru. - allows spanish empire in america to be 20 times the size of spain by the end of the 16th century. Most indigenous people perish, and surviving ones are forced to convert to christianity.
To americas: grains, livestock, sugar, and diseases
To Europe: tobacco, rice, silk, and indigo
From Africa: enslaved people to Americas
Consequences of the age of exploration
Americas: 90% of native indigineous perish, Horses transformed the culturve of native tribes
Europe: Diet revolutionized, population exploded, more wealth (gold, sugar, and silks)
Africa: Trans atlantic slave trade, Africans = largest group of people transported to new world
Wrote "Travels" as an account of his travels to the court of Mongol ruler Khubilai Khan
detailed charts made by medieval navigators and mathematicians
astronomer of 2nd century that was rediscovered and used a lot, despite his maps not being accurate
A of E Ships
Used axial rudders, lateen sails, and square rigs. Ships were more mobile and could have cannons
Portuguese fleets fought turkish and indian ships + established a blockade to stop flow of spices to muslim rulers in order to have a monopoly over the goods
A of E in India
- Portugal, British, Dutch, and French compete for regional trade in India
- British have stronger support (financial, leadership, and East India Company) and are able to dominate the area
A of E in China
- @ height during Ming Dynasty
- Decline under Qing Dynasty
- Export tea/silk to england
A of E in Japan
- Tokugawa Leyasu helped unify Japan
- Initially welcomed Europeans and were intrigued by tobacco, inventions, and weapons.
- Later expelled all missionaries and most foreigners
A of E in North America and West Indies
English colonies on Eastern coast of N. America
- Sugar factories in Caribbean
- Colonies provided raw material to home nation
Major shifts in Commercial Revolution
- Increase in wealth
- Nationalism on the rise
- New entrepreneurs
- New industries
- New joint-stock companies
Economic system of trade where nation’s wealth and power are best served by increase export and trade. Got raw materials from colonies and sold products for higher prices. The colonies also could not trade w/ one another
Consequences of the commercial revolution
- Decline of Hanseatic League
- Ended prior monopolies on trade with Asia
- Rise of Capitalism
- Rise of the Bourgeoisie (middle class)
Art form and subject
Classical form with Christian subjects
Writer of the French renaissance - made “the essay” popular
Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, Elizabeth I
Piero della Franscesca
Artist - "Duke and Duchess of Urbino)
Afonso de Alburquerque
- set up port facilities in Goa
- Seized Malacca and massacred Arab population
Treaty of Tordesillas
Split the new world between spain and portugal.
Portuguese got east (trade route around cape of good hope) and spain west (across Atlantic).
"encomtenda" granted to Spanish conquerers to demand labor of natives.
french leader - invades italy to control naples and initiates the Hapsburg-valois wars