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AP Psych sensation & perception

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Psychology

Biological Psychology

11th

70 Terms
đŸ˜ƒ Not studied yet (70)
when special receptors in the sense organs are activated, allowing stimuli to become neural signals in the brain
the process of converting outside physical stimuli into neural activity
physical proportion of change (%) necessary before we sense the change. Different for each sense.
the smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50% of the time
the lowest level of stimulation that a person can consciously detect 50 percent of the time the stimulation is present
when neural or sensory receptors change/reduce their sensitivity to a continuous unchanging stimuli
a pattern of decreased response to a stimulus after frequently repeated exposure
the detection (or lack thereof) of a faint stimulus: hit, miss, false alarm, correct rejection. Influenced by the physical & psychological state of the individual (fearful, focused elsewhere, etc.)
groups of neurons in visual cortex respond to different types of visual images
the interpretation of senses
when the lens changes its shape to be thick or thin, enabling it to focus on objects that are close or far away
found everywhere except the fovea, these detect blacks, whites, and grays. Work best in low levels of light.
these detect colors & work best in bright light, Responsible for the sharpness of visual information. Found in fovea.
central area of the retina containing greatest density of photoreceptors
back of the eye, contains receptor cells (rods & cones), and then bipolar and ganglion cells.
changes shape to bring objects into focus on the retina (accomodation)
sends visual information to the brain (through the optic chiasm, to the visual cortex of occipital lobe).
where the optic nerve leaves the eye; there are no photoreceptors/receptor cells here.
on the retina, these cells' axons make up the optic nerve
iris opening that changes depending on the amount of light in the environment
controls the size of the pupil
3 types of cones for each color: red, blue, green.
explains after image. we see color in pairs, if on eis stimulated the other is inhibited: red & green, black & white, blue & yellow
Color, which is determined by wavelength (high frequence wavelength = bluish, low frequencey wavelength = reddish)
determined by amplitude (height) of wavelength
the three tiny bones in the middle ear. Aka: ossicles, ossicular bones, malleus/incus/stapes
determined by frequency of a wave (wavelength)
determined by amplitude of wave (hieght)
snailshaped structure in the inner ear, filled with fluid that vibrates when we hear. Contains basilar membrane, ogran of corti & hair cells
the pitch a person hears depends on where hair cells that are stimulated are located on the organ of corti *high frequency at base.
pitch is related to how fast the basilar membrane vibrates, at the same rate of sound *focuses on low frequency
a strip of membrane in the cochlea that is surrounded by liquid
problems with the mechanics (physical vibrations/soundwave) of the outer or middle ear
loss of hair cells in the inner ear aka nerve deafness.
a phenomenon in which people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby; selective attention
tendency to perceive objects as always being the same size, no matter how far away they are
tendency to perceive objects as remaining the same shape even when the shape of the object changes on the retina
tendency to perceive objects as a certain level of brightness, even when the light changes
depth cues available to either eye alone. ONE eye is in use
depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of TWO eyes
Lines that are parallel in the three-dimensional world will appear to converge in a two-dimensional image as they extend into the distance
if something covers something else we interpret it as closer to us
the closer the more detailed the image; the further away something is the smoother/blurrier it appears
further away objects appear slower than closer ones
an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
inward movement of both eyes; binocular cue
a binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance—the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, as existing on a background
the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete; Gestalt
tendency to perceive objects that are close together as belonging to a group; Gestalt
you use your background knowledge to fill the gaps in what we sense (ie using the puzzle box cover as a guide to build a puzzle)
you use the features of the object itself to build a complete perception (ie building a puzzle with no guide)
body position & orientation of body parts *comes form receptors in skin, joints, & muscles
balance & movement *comes from semicircular canals
the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers (when you rubbed a stubbed toe)