Global Issues Exam 1

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Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
Established borders, first states outside of Rome
Elements of Balance of Power Theory
Multipolar world: several world powers Bipolar world: two dominant world powers Unipolar world: one major world power
What are the main bodies of the UN?
The Security council, ECSOC council, General Assembly, Secretariat, Secretary General
What is state sovereignty?
When the state is the supreme authority in the international system
Unilateralism vs Multilateralism
Unilateralism: US doesn’t need help, US cannot let its power be diluted in collective decision-making processes Multilateralism: Multilateralism: cooperate with other nations, associated w liberalism
What are non-state actors?
A non-state actor (NSA) are organizations and/or individuals that are not affiliated with, directed by, or funded by any government.
What are the types of NSAs?
Social actors: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) Economic actors: international finance, multinational corporations Underworld actors: organized crime, terrorist networks Religious actors: the Church, various religious cults and organizations
What are the missions of UN peacekeepers?
To help maintain peace and security, protect civilians, promote transition to democracy and political processes, assist in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants, support elections (holding, monitoring, etc.), and promote human rights and restoring rule of law
What are the roles of UN peacekeepers?
Their role is to protect civilians under threat in the countries where they are deployed
What are some criticisms of the UN?
Security council: Criticisms related to membership structure, lack of representation and effectiveness + difficulty of reform UN performance: Bloated bureaucracy, inefficient, corrupt. Lack of results or bad results Performance and effectiveness: Inefficient, bureaucracy, corruption. Lack of results or bad results/scandals
What is terrorism?
Covert attacks launched by individuals or groups, often on innocent citizens, usually with political goals
What are some state sponsors of terror (as listed by the US Secretary of State)
Cuba, North Korea, Iran, Syria
Which countries have the highest level of terrorism?
Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, Burkina Faso, Syria, Nigeria, Mali, Niger, Pakistan
What are sources of terrorism?
Political goals, economic factors and the link between poverty and terrorism, culture clash and religion
Which countries are recognized nuclear powers?
U.S., Russia, France, the UK, China, India, Pakistan, DPRK
Which countries are nuclear abstainers?
Japan, [needs more info]
Which efforts were taken to reduce the number of nuclear weapons in the world?
Freezing: 60s-70s (involved SALT I & II talks) Reductions: 80s-90s (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, 1987, START I & II talks) Reductions: 2000s-2010s: Moscow Treaty Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions (2002-2012) New Start Treaty (2011-2021)
Why hasn't the U.S. adopted a no first use policy?
First use is an important deterrent for non-nuclear attacks, our allies rely on this deterrent (NATO, East Asia), our allies may choose to develop their own nuclear weapons capability
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and preventing genocide
Early warning: identify situations of risk. International responses to genocide and crimes against humanity: mediation and/or diplomatic interventions. Sanctions, military intervention (regional bodies, peacekeeping forces, UN member states). Mixed results so far – possible success stories, some not so successful
What were set up to punish perpetrators of genocide?
Set up of adhoc tribunals to punish those responsible for genocide and other crimes against humanity in the mid-1990s
Which was more effective, the ICT for Rwanda or Yugoslavia?
ICT for Rwanda much faster than ICT for the Former Yugoslavia which dragged on for 24 years
What is the NPT?
a treaty first signed in 1968, 190 nations are now party. All nations agree not to provide technological or material assistance that would allow other nations to build up nuclear weapons, and non-nuclear states agree to forgo nuclear weapons
What is the IAEA?
A body set up in 1957 as an independent UN body charged with promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy. As the main compliance enforcer IAEA is responsible for monitoring compliance with the NPT, and IAEA can conduct inspections for evidence of nuclear weapons programs in non-nuclear states IAEA cannot enforce NPT, the Security Council must do this.
Criticisms of nuclear proliferation/deterrence
Gamble of proliferation too high: it can reduce chances of war, but not eliminate them. Difficult to reproduce MAD if countries small and poor, weakening the deterrence value. Pre-emptive strikes necessary for protection. Launch on warning. Terrorists, black markets do not answer to the IAEA.
What is the history of relations between U.S. and Iran?
Pre 1979: US support of the Shah and his regime Breakdown in the US-Iran relationship: overthrow of the Shah in 1979 by a fundamentalist Islamic revolution, unfriendly to the US (kidnapping crisis) and essentially Anti-West
What was the global response to Iran's nuclear program?
The global community resisted this program greatly. During the 2000s – 2015: inspections, sanctions and talks were held, resulting in the Iranian nuclear deal
What were the key components of the Iran Nuclear deal?
Limits were placed on Iran to prevent development of nuclear arms, and the IAEA will monitor these and other provisions. Access to frozen assets overseas ($100 billion), Iran can resume selling oil on international markets and use the global financial system to trade, but other sanctions will remain in place and if Iran violates the deal, UN sanctions “snap back” into place for 10 years.
What was the goal of the Iran nuclear deal?
To lengthen the time that it takes for Iran to develop a nuclear bomb from a few months to a year and keep this in place for a decade Lifting of nuclear-related sanctions (following steps taken by Iran on above limits)
What are the characteristics of DPRK authoritarianism?
The Juche ideology of self-reliance, Political dynasty and personality cult of Kim Il Sung, his son Kim Jong Il, and now Kim Jong Un (Kim Jong Il’s son), and extreme isolationist policy.
How big is the DPRK military capacity and its nuclear program?
Fourth largest military in the world: armed forces of 1.3 million. Potentially large number of missiles, including development of long-range missiles and all types of missiles. Biological and Chemical Agents (250-500 tons) including anthrax, botulinum toxin and plague; mustard, phosgene, sarin and other chemicals. Build up near the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
Which multi-lateral attempts to curb the DPRK's nuclear program were taken?
1985: North Korea becomes a party to the NPT 1994: US-DPRK Agreed Framework, agreement to help North Korea with nuclear energy/food aid if it gives up nuclear weapons (US, South Korea, Japan). Since 2006, 9 resolutions passed by the UN Security Council in favor of sanctions. Recent US Sanctions: 2008, 2010, 2013, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2022 covers arms and economic activities. 2017: Travel to and from DPRK from US suspended
South Korea & DPRK relations
President Kim Dae Jung’s “Sunshine Policy” (1998-2003) allows visits of families across the border. An agreement to reconnect east and west coast implemented with railways at the DMZ New N-S economic cooperation: tourism, Kaesong Industrial Complex President Roh Moon-Hyun (2003-08): pro-engagement, continues Sunshine policy Less engagement and more tense relations under conservative South Korean Presidents Lee Myung–Bak (2009-2012) and Park Geun-hye (2013-2017) Liberal President Moon Jae-In (2017-2022): revived a new version of Sunshine policy
When was the ICC established?
Established in 1998
Which crimes does the ICC address?
International crimes like genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes
What is the ICCs jurisdiction?
When crimes committed by nationals (individuals) of states that have ratified the ICC statute, and crimes committed on the territory of states that have ratified the ICC statute
Does complementarity replace national courts?
ICC will not replace national courts. The court will only investigate and prosecute if a state is unwilling or unable to try the case.
How do you initiate a case with the ICC?
The UN Security Council or a state refers a case to the ICC, then a prosecutor initiates an investigation, with authorization of the Pre-Trial Chamber.
What are the forms of human trafficking?
Labor trafficking and sex trafficking
What is the definition of trafficking?
the recruitment or movement of persons for forced labor or slavery-like practices (Includes an act, a means and the purpose of exploitation)
What is the Palermo Protocol?
The UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children
Parties to the Palermo Protocol agree to:
Adopt national legislation to criminalize trafficking, assist victims of trafficking, take steps to prevent trafficking, cooperate with other countries on the transnational aspects of trafficking
What are the U.S. policies on human trafficking?
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act of 2000 (and reauthorizations in 2005, 2008, 2013 and 2017) (TVPA), Increased penalties for trafficking, increased protection for victims of trafficking, required reporting on trafficking, & places conditions on foreign aid if developing countries are not meeting minimum standards to stop trafficking