Living Earth (H) Midterm Study Guide

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Midterm Review: major terms, concepts, science skills

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Steps of the CER Process
A claim that answers the question. Evidence from students' data. Reasoning that involves a rule or scientific principle that describes why the evidence supports the claim.
A statement that answers your question
Information that supportsĀ  your claim Examples: - Observations - Facts from a scientific text - Data -- pictures, graphs, tables (quadratic or qualitative)
An explanation or description of how your evidence supports your claim
The reasoning is based on:
Scientific theories, laws, or principles
What is the claim in this scenario?
I have evidence that proves that I am the quickest on the team.
claim, evidence, reasoning (CER)
Claim- statement or conclusion that answers the original question or problem
Evidence- scientific data that supports the claim
Reasoning- explanation of how the evidence supports the claim
Biometric Factors
Often categorized as physiological characteristics, which are related to the shape of the body. Examples: Fingerprint, palm veins, face recognition, DNA, palm print, hand geometry, iris recognition, retina, and odor/scent.
Abiotic Factors
Nonliving components of environment.
Earths Spheres
atmosphere, hydrosphere/ cryosphere, lithosphere, biosphere,
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere (Abiotic)
A rigid layer is made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust. (Abiotic)
Frozen water on earth (Abiotic)
Tolerance Range
The range between the minimum and maximum limits to which organisms can tolerate certain changes in their environment to survive.
Ecological Niche
the sum of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment Types: - Habitat or Spatial Niche - Trophic Niche - Hypervolume Niche
Fundamental Niche
The entire set of conditions under which an animal (population, species) can survive and reproduce itself.
Realized Niche
the range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives
Population Density
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
Population Distribution
Description of locations on Earth's surface where populations live: Clumped Random Uniform
Population Growth
increase in the number of people who inhabit a territory or state
Growth Factors
Births, Deaths, Immigration, Emigration
Population growth models
exponential growth and logistic growth
Exponential Growth
Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
Logistic Growth
Growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth
Carrying capacity
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Limiting factors
Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms.
Independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; is the variable whose effect is being studied. x - axis
Dependent variable
The outcome factor; is the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. y - axis
A state of balance
Carrying capacity on a graph:
locate the point on the graph where the population line is horizontal.
Social Behavior Benefits
A set of interactions among individuals of the same species. A wide range of sociality occurs among animals. Contributes a fitness benefit to genes they carry Group behaviors likely evolved because populations of social organisms share a large portion of their DNA.
Types of Consumers:
omnivores, carnivores, herbivores and decomposers
An animal or person that eats food of both plant and animal origin.
Living things that only eat plants to get the food and energy they need
Living things that only eat meat.
An organism, especially a soil bacterium, fungus, or invertebrate, that decomposes organic material.
Primary consumers
Mostly herbivores
Secondary and tertiary consumers
Omnivores and carnivores
Apex predators
Animals who have no predators other than humans.
Food Chain
A hierarchical series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food.
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Food Web
A system of interlocking and interdependent food chains.
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Trophic Levels
Each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem, comprising organisms that share the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy.
First Trophic Level
Second Trophic Level: Primary Consumers
Herbivores are placed in this trophic level of the food chain. They depend upon autotrophs to meet their food requirements. Examples: - Insects - cows - pigs.
Third Trophic Level: Secondary Consumers
Commonly known as carnivores, secondary consumers consume other animals. Examples - Rats - spiders - fish
Fourth Trophic Level: Tertiary Consumers
Tertiary consumers eat primary and secondary consumers to fulfill their nutrient needs. They obtain their energies from meat Examples: - hyenas - dolphins - sharks.
Fifth Trophic Level: Quaternary Consumers
Commonly known as apex predators, quaternary consumers stand at the top of the food web. Examples - humans - wolves - lions - orca
Energy Transfer
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Ecological Efficiency
Describes the efficiency with which energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next.
10% Rule
When organisms are consumed, approximately 10% of the energy in the food is fixed into their flesh and is available for the next trophic level (carnivores or omnivores). You need to know how to calculate this.
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed - only converted from one form of energy to another. K_{1}+U_{1} =K_{2}+U_{2} K_{1}= initial kinetic energy U_{1}= initial potential energy K_{2}= final kinetic energy U_{2}= final potential energy
No Violation of the Law of Conservation
Food chains use a unidirectional transfer of energy. Plants absorb energy from the sun, then the energy goes on to next tropic level and so on.
Carbon Cycle
Cycling of carbon in the environment
Fast cycle processes
Slow cycle processes
Law of Conservation of Matter
The same amount of matter exists before and after the changeā€”none is created or destroyed.
Photosynthesis Balanced Chemical Equation
Photosynthesis balanced equation and the law of conservation of energy
The law of conservation of mass states that in a chemical reaction, mass is neither created nor destroyed. Energy can be converted from one form to another. In the case of photosynthesis, energy is converted from sunlight into glucose. Glucose is a carbohydrate which is a molecule that the body can break down for energy.
A plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
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Job in a plant is to absorb light. The energy absorbed from light is transferred to two kinds of energy-storing molecules. Through photosynthesis, the plant uses the stored energy to convert carbon dioxide (absorbed from the air) and water into glucose, a type of sugar.
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Carrying Capacity
You need to locate the point on the graph where the population line is horizontal. Alternatively, the carrying capacity may be explicitly marked with a dotted horizontal line or a horizontal line of a different color. y-axis: population x-axis: measurement of time (months, years
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