Honors Biology - Chapter 4: Cells

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What is cell theory?
All living things come from cells, and all cells come from other cells
What happens to the surface area and volume as a cell size increases?
The volume increases faster than the surface area
What is a plasma membrane composed of? Which way do the heads face?
Phospholipids, heads face outward toward water
What is a prokaryotic cell?
Structurally simple and smaller
What is a eukaryotic cell?
More complex and bigger
What does the nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell contain?
What are organelles?
Organ-like structures that perform a specific function in a cell
What domains do prokaryotic cells contain?
Bacteria and Archarea
What is the most obvious difference between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell?
Cell size and structure
What structures do just prokaryotic cells contain?
Plant and animal cells are this type of cell.
What do plant cells have that animal cells don't have?
A rigid cell wall, plasmodesmata, chloroplasts, and a central vacuole
What do animal cells have that plant cells don't have?
Lysosomes and centrosomes containing cellulose
What are the three regions of the nucleus?
1) Nucleolus; 2) Membrane(Nuclear envelope); 3) Chromatin
What is chromatin?
complex of proteins and DNA
What do chromatin fibers coil up into during cell reproduction?
What is the function of the nucleolus?
rRNA(Ribosomal RNA) synthesis
What do ribosomes manufacture?
What structures does the endomembrane system include? Are they all connected?
The nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum(ER), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and a plasma membrane. Only two are connected
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
Extensive network of flattened sacs and tubules
Membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum are continuous (connected) to what other structure?
Nuclear envelope
What is bound to the rough ER?
What does the rough ER make?
An additional membrane for itself and secretory proteins
Enzymes of the smooth ER are important in the synthesis of what?
Lipids, oils, phospholipids, and steroids
What is the Golgi apparatus?
Molecular warehouse and processing station for the ER
Are the sacs of the Golgi apparatus connected to each other?
What are the functions of the Golgi apparatus?
A molecular warehouse that modifies, sorts, and ships cell products
What is a lysosome?
Digestive compartments within a cell
What makes the enzymes and membranes of lysosomes?
Rough ER
What are the functions of lysosomes?
To fuse with food vacuoles to digest food, destroy bacteria engulfed with white blood cells, and fuse with other vesicles containing damaged organelles or other materials to be recycled within a cell
What are vacuoles?
Large vesicles with a variety of functions
What do protists do with the water they collect from the cell in their contractile vacuoles? What does this prevent the protist from doing?
Eliminate water and prevent protists from bursting
What might a plant's large central vacuole contain?
Digestive functions containing pigments and poisons that protect the plant
Is there a direct structural connection between the nuclear envelope, rough ER, and smooth ER?
How does a protein manufactured by the ER leave the cell? List all organelles and cell parts involved.
ER - transport vesicle - Golgi apparatus - lysosome - plasma membrane
What do some vesicles develop into?
Lysosomes or vacuoles
What are peroxisomes?
Metabolic compartments that break down fatty acids to be used as cellular fuel
What do peroxisomes do?
Detoxify harmful compounds
What are mitochondria?
Organelles that carry out cellular respiration and convert food energy to chemical energy in eukaryotic cells(powerhouse of the cell)
What molecule do mitochondria convert energy into?
How many membranes do mitochondria have?
What does the mitochondrial matrix contain?
DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes
What are the folds of the inner membrane called?
What is the photosynthesizing organelle of plant cells?
What does the cytoskeleton contain and what does it organize?
Microtubules, intermediate filament, and microfilaments
List the three parts of the cytoskeleton from smallest to largest
Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
What are the short, numerous appendages that propel protists called?
How are flagella different from cilia?
Longer and limited
What are flagella and cilia composed of?
How are these microtubules arranged? What is this arrangement called?
Wrapped, in a 9+2 pattern
What are the bending proteins in flagella and cilia called?
Dynein feet
What is the function of the extracellular matrix?
Support and regulation in animal cells
What are the three types of cell junctions found in animal tissues?
Tight junctions, Anchoring junctions, Gap junctions
Which junction prevents the leakage of fluids?
Tight junctions
Which junction fastens cells together?
Anchoring junctions
Which junction allows small molecules to flow through?
Gap junctions
What is the name of the cell junction found just in plants?
What cell organelles are involved in genetic control?
Nucleus and ribosomes
What cell organelles are involved in manufacturing, distribution, and breakdown of materials?
Rough ER, Smooth ER, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and peroxisomes
What cell organelles are involved in energy processing?
Mitochondria and chloroplasts
What cell organelles are involved in structural support, movement, and intercellular communication?
Cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, extracellular matrix, cell junctions, and cell walls
What structure is associated with prokaryotic cells?
The nucleus of the cell contains what?
The complex of proteins and DNA in a nondividing cell is called
Which cells have a membrane-bound nucleus?
What in a mitochondrion increases the surface area?