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Mycology Exam 1

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71 Terms
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Monokaryon
one nucleus per hyphal compartment
Dikaryon
2 nuclei per hyphal compartment
Organelles
Typical eukaryotic assemblage with Golgi equivalents and microbodies
Golgi equivalents
single fold golgi
Microbodies
function in fatty acid degradation and nitrogen metabolism
Spitzenk├Ârper
aggregation of vesicles associated with growing hyphal tips
Spore
-minute propagative unit that functions as a seed but doesn't contain a pre-formed embryo
Heterotrophic
Organisms that obtain their nutrients or food from consuming other organisms.
Saprobes
organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter
Secretive/Absorptive nutrition
1) Hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes secreted 2) Enzymes degrade substances in the environment 3) Degraded nutrients are absorbed into cell via endocytosis
Cell wall of Fungi
well defined complex matrix of polysaccharides and proteins and contains chitin and one of the major components are glucans and components can change throughout life cycle and between species
Glucans
polymers of glucose
AAA Lysine Biosynthesis
Can make lysine in their bodies
Hypha
basic cellular unit of filamentous fungi and they may be septate or coenocytic (aseptate)
Septate hyphae
contain cross-walls
Coenocytic hyphae
hyphae that contain no septa and appear as long, continuous cells with many nuclei
Mycelium
densely branched network of the hyphae of a fungus
Sporocarp
any complex fungal structure that contains or bears spores (where tissue differentiation happens)
How to classify diversity?
Ecology, Morphology, Phylogenetics
Challenges with classifying with morphology
Difficult to differentiate between homology and homoplasy
Homology
similarity due to common ancestry
Homoplasy
similarity of characters that evolved independently (product of conversion evolution)
Phenetics
classification of organisms based on phenotypic traits
Phylogenetics
The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
Zoosprangium
spore case
Oomycetes ("Water molds")
~700 species -Mycelial (coenocytic) -Zoosporangium -Zoospore with two anterior, heterokont flagella (unequal length) -no sporocarp production -aquatic and terrestrial
Slime molds
~850 species -Dictyostelia = cellular slime molds (have septate hyphae) -Myxogastria = plasmodial slime molds (have coenocytic hyphae) -no cell wall -terrestrial
Dictyostelia
cellular slime molds (have septate hyphae)
Myxogastria
plasmodial slime molds (have coenocytic hyphae)
Cryptomycota
~30 species -unicellular -zoospore OR polar filament -ALL intracellular parasites -Highly reduced
Microsporidia
~1500 species -unicellular -zoospore OR polar filament -ALL intracellular parasites -Highly reduced
Chytridiomycota
~700 species - unicellular to mycelial (coenocytic) - zoospore with single posterior flagellum - no sporocarp production - aquatic and terrestrial
Blastocladiomycota
~200 spp. - Mycelial (coenocytic) - Zoospores w/single posterior flagellum - Complex life cycles - Aquatic or terrestrial
Zoopagomycota
~400 species - Mycelium (coenocytic) - Most pathogens of animals or mycoparasites - Sexual reproduction via Zygosporangium
Mucoromycota
~600 species - Coenocytic mycelium - Sexual reproduction viz zygosporangia -> zygospores - Many saprobes and soil fungi - Arbuscular mycorrhizae
Basidiomycota
~25,000 species - Septate mycelium - Clamp connections - Dikaryotic mycelium - Production of basidiospores on a basidium - Production of complex sporocarps
Ascomycota
~35,000 species - Septate mycelia - Monokaryotic, Haploid mycelia - Production of ascospores in an ascus - Production of complex sporocarps - Often dominant asexual reproduction
Diversity of Basidiomycota
~25,000 described species
Growth forms of Basidiomycota
Filamentous to yeast
Reproductive structures of Basidiomycota
Lacking sporocarps to highly developed fruiting bodies
Nutritional Modes of Basidiomycota
Saprobic: Eating of dead organic matter Biotrophic: parasitic Necrotrophic: parasite that kills its host and eats the dead matter
Basidiomycota Symbiosis
Mycorrhizae, insect symbionts, plant & animal pathogens, etc
Dikaryon
2 separate but compatible nuclei in each cell or compartment (unique to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota)
Synapomorphy
a characteristic present in an ancestral species and shared exclusively (in more or less modified form) by its evolutionary descendants
Basidium
-Synapomorphy of Basidiomycota - Specialized hyphal tip - Site of meiosis - Products of meiosis = basidiospores - Usually located in specialized regions or tissues (e.g. gills or pores)
Stages of Basidium
1) Probasidium = (n+n to 2n) - site of karyogamy 2) metabasidium = (2n to n+n+n+n) - site of meiosis 3) mature basidium - basidiospores produced exogenously
Sterigma(ta)
Section between basidium and basidiospores
Holobasidium
aseptate basidium
Phragmobasidium
basidium with septations
Basidiospores
- one to several haploid nuclei per spore (1-2 most common) - 2-8 spores per basidium (4 most common)
Ballistospores
forcibly ejected basidiospores
Statismospores
passively ejected basidiospores that are symmetrically situated on sterigmata
Amyloid spores
blue-black in iodine
Dextrinoid spores
red-brown in iodine
Cystidium
Sterile cell occurring amongst basidia along the hymenium
Hymenium
Fertile portion of mushrooms where spores are produced
Clamp connections
hyphal extension in opposite orientation of growth and function in maintaining the Dikaryon in Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota Life Cycle
1) Sporocarp (n+n) 2) Gilled Hymenophore (n+n) 3) Gill (n+n) 4) Basidium (n+n -> 2n -> n+n+n+n) 5) Basidiospore (n) 6) Monokaryon (n) 7) Fusion of monokaryons (n -> n+n) 8) Clamp connections (n+n) 9) Dikaryon (n+n) 10) Mycelium (n+n) 11) Sporocarp primordia (n+n)
Hymenophore
hymenium-bearing structure of a fungal fruiting body
Basidioma(ta)
formal term used to designate to basidiocarp or sporocarp of basidiomycetes (fruiting body)
Pileus
cap or upper surface of basidiomata
Stipe
the stalk of a mushroom (can be central, eccentric, lateral, absent and solid, hollow, or stuffed)
Gleba
enclosed spore mass of gasteromycetes
Peridium
outer tissue that encloses gleba of gasteromycetes, homologous to pileus of mushroom, one to many layers
Veils
-Universal veil (volva and scales) -Partial veil (annulus/skirt)
Pucciniomycotina
-Rusts, marine yeasts -teliospore with phragmobasidium -simple septa -septal pore occlusions
Ustilaginomycotina
-Smut, bunts, yeasts -teliospore with phragmobasidium or holobasidium -"smut septa" - septal pore cap
Agaricomycotina
-Mushrooms, jelly fungi, conks, coral, crusts, puffballs - holobasidium (main) or phragmobasidium - Dolipore septa - Perforated and nonperforated septal pore cap
Resupinate
lying flat on the substratum without a stalk or well defined cap
Light spore print
white, yellow, pink, lilac
Dark spore print
black, purple, brown, red, rust, green