Structure of a Neuron & Action Potential

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Protects and supports neurons. DO NOT transmit signals
Transmits cell signals
Cell body, Dendrites, Axons and Myelin Sheath
Contains nucleus and organelles of cell
Receives signals from other neurons (Think of this like this: it has D-End like it's end of a line. Since it's end, it cannot pass info, so it just takes it in)
Transmits signals to other neurons (Think of Axel, connects two things)
Thin type of fiber used for making cell communications faster (it's white color)
Sensory (Afferent) Neuron, Motor (Efferent) Neuron and Interneurons (Association)
Conduct signal to CNS (input). (Remember this using skin example; your skin senses first before informing the brain)
Conduct signal away from CNS (output). (Think of a motorbike going out of freeway, it's going out so it's output)
Conduct signals between neurons in the CNS (It has the word inter so it's between)
Multipolar Neuron, Bipolar Neuron and Unipolar Neuron
Many dendrites and a single axon. Makes up most of the neurons in CNS and motor neurons. (Multi, so most and thus many)
1 Dendrite and 1 Axon.
Receive signal and conduct to CNS. Found in sensory organs such as the retina.
Single process extending from cell body
Found in most sensory receptors
Electric signals is sent through changes in the ionic concentration to the cell membrane
A change in membrane potential that doesn’t cause an action potential. (The Almost action potential)
Frequency of signal (how quickly it is sent)
The membrane is selectively permeable as a result of the polarity and size of molecules. (This is also called Ion Channels)
Leak channels and Gated Ion channels
Open in response due to stimuli
Ligand-gated channels, Voltage-gated and Other gated receptors.
Extracellular receptor site; opens in response to molecule binding with receptor site
Open and close in response to the membrane; sudden flow of ions in or out of the cell will cause it to open
Open it in response to something other than molecular binding or voltage change
Action Potential, Depolarization, Re polarization and Hyper polarization
A graded potential becomes strong enough to set of a train of ionic changes in the cell membrane.
Member potential increases above threshold as a result of graded potential
- Voltage gated Na+ channels open allowing sodium to flow into the cell
- Voltage gated K+ channels remain closed
Membrane reaches maximum depolarization (nearing equilibrium)
- Voltage gated Na+ channels close stop the flow of Na+ into the cell
- Voltage gated K+ channels open allowing K+ ions to flow out of the cell
- Combination of reduced permeability of Na+ and increased permeability of K+ decreases the member potential
Occurs when K+ gates stay open after the completing of repolarization
Creates a refractory period when no action potentials are able to sent. 
- Sodium/Potassium pump moves ions back across the membrane against the concentration gradient
- Moving ions in 3:2 ratio ensures that a steep concentration gradient remains
- Moves Sodium and Potassium in and out of the cell across the concentration gradient & returns the cell to resting conditions
- Active transport requires ATP
- Moves 3 Na+ back out of the cell
- Moves 2 K+ back into the cell
-70 mV
Cell body