# Psy 1110- Exam 1

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49 Terms
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Scales of Measurement (list them)
Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio
Nominal
simply categorizes information, not typically numerical Example: marriage status, political party, gender, Football jersey number(no value, just a number to distinguish a person)
Ordinal
Numbers used to place objects in order -Cannot assume that differences between values are equal Example: 1st, 2nd , ...
Interval
Scale on which equal intervals between objects represent equal differences, but has no true zero Example: Fahrenheit
Ratio
Equal intervals between objects ***Has a definite 0 Ex: hours you slept, weight, how many pets you have
Types of Variables (list them)
Discrete vs Continuous Independent vs Dependent
Discrete Variable
small set of possible values, if its a number its an integer(whole number) Ex: rolling a dice
Continuous Variable
infinite number of possible values between the lowest and highest number on the scale Ex: length of time
independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated by the researches; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
The measurable effect, outcome, or response due to the independent variable
Seven Critical Components to a Good News Report(words to remember, list them)
-Source and funding -Researchers contact -Individuals selected -Measurements and questions -Setting -Extraneous differences -Magnitude/effect
7 pitfalls when asking questions (list them)
Deliberate Bias Unintentional Bias Desire to Please Asking the Uniformed Unnecessary Complexity Ordering of Questions Confidentiality
Deliberate Bias
unintentional bias
wording a question in a way that might be misinterpreted by the respondent Ex: Do you take drugs? (meant prescribed or over the counter medicine)
Respondents have a desire to please the person who is asking the question. Tend to understate response to an undesirable social habit/opinion Ex: "do you floss regularly?" No one does lets be real, but most people tell the dentist they do
subjects may provide an answer to a question about which they have no knowledge
unnecessary complexity
when a question isn't simple and easy to understand
Ordering of Questions
The order in which questions are presented can change the results (especially if one question gives more insight on another question asked)
Confidentiality
people answer questions differently depending on how anonymous they believe they are Ex: if you ask someone if they drink underage, might say no to avoid getting in trouble or being judged
Closed Question
a question in which the respondent is given a list to choose their answer from Ex: any multiple choice question
Open Question
A question the respondent is allowed to answer with their own words Ex: short response, essay
Common Language Terms (list them)
Validity Reliability Bias Variability Natural Variability
Validity
a measure of accuracy, does the research measure what it's supposed to
Reliability
a measure of the consistency of research results
Bias
a measure that is consistently off the mark in ONE direction Ex: bathroom scale tells you you're 145, 146, 147, you're actually 140
Variability
unpredictable errors or discrepancies, a measure that is off the mark in any direction Ex: individual test scores vs the class average
Natural Variability
variability that cannot be explained or predicted, that are due to nature Ex: individual pain tolerance
Population(Parameter)
overall group of individuals that the researchers are interested in Ex: Ohio University Students
Sampling Frame
a list of individuals from whom the sample is drawn Ex: Statistics Students
Sample survey(Statistics)
a subset of the population and sampling frame from which the researches are going to study Ex: Dr. McCartheys 12:30 statistics class of students
Margin of Error
the measure of accuracy of a sample survey(a percentage) 1/ (âˆš n)
methods of sampling(list them)
Simple Random Stratified Random Cluster Systematic Random digit Dialing
Simple Random Sampling
every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample
stratified random sampling
Dividing the population into groups and then taking a sample from each group Ex: East, South, West green, take 10 residents from each green
cluster sampling
Divide the population into groups or 'clusters' Select a random amount of groups Use all members of the selected groups/clusters Ex: Take 2 specific dorm halls, interview everyone in those 2 halls
systematic sampling
select some starting point and then select every kth element in the population Ex: put participants in a line, choose every 4th person
random digit dialing
a polling method in which respondents are selected at random from a list of 10-digit telephone numbers, with every effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample
Multistage Sampling
using a combination of sampling methods
Population(Parameter) symbols
greek symbols: Î¼ (mu) and Ïƒ (lower case sigma)
Ïƒ(baby sigma)
population standard deviation
Î¼(mu)
population mean
Sample (Statistics) symbols
xÌ„ (x bar) s
xÌ„ (x bar)
sample mean
s
sample standard deviation
Types of Data(list them)
Measurement vs Categorical Differences vs Relationships
Measurement data
Quantitative data obtained by measuring objects or events(is a number) Ex: weight, speed, time
Categorical Data
qualitative data representing the count of observations in each category "How many in a group of" Ex: a yes or no question
Differences in data
differences occur between groups
Relationship in data
Relationships occur between variables