49 Terms

ðŸ˜ƒ Not studied yet (49)

Scales of Measurement (list them)

Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio

Nominal

simply categorizes information, not typically numerical
Example: marriage status, political party, gender, Football jersey number(no value, just a number to distinguish a person)

Ordinal

Numbers used to place objects in order
-Cannot assume that differences between values are equal
Example: 1st, 2nd , ...

Interval

Scale on which equal intervals between objects represent equal differences, but has no true zero
Example: Fahrenheit

Ratio

Equal intervals between objects
***Has a definite 0
Ex: hours you slept, weight, how many pets you have

Types of Variables (list them)

Discrete vs Continuous
Independent vs Dependent

Discrete Variable

small set of possible values, if its a number its an integer(whole number)
Ex: rolling a dice

Continuous Variable

infinite number of possible values between the lowest and highest number on the scale
Ex: length of time

independent variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated by the researches; the variable whose effect is being studied

dependent variable

The measurable effect, outcome, or response due to the independent variable

Seven Critical Components to a Good News Report(words to remember, list them)

-Source and funding
-Researchers contact
-Individuals selected
-Measurements and questions
-Setting
-Extraneous differences
-Magnitude/effect

7 pitfalls when asking questions (list them)

Deliberate Bias
Unintentional Bias
Desire to Please
Asking the Uniformed
Unnecessary Complexity
Ordering of Questions
Confidentiality

Deliberate Bias

wording a question to receive a desired answer

unintentional bias

wording a question in a way that might be misinterpreted by the respondent
Ex: Do you take drugs? (meant prescribed or over the counter medicine)

Desire to please

Respondents have a desire to please the person who is asking the question. Tend to understate response to an undesirable social habit/opinion
Ex: "do you floss regularly?" No one does lets be real, but most people tell the dentist they do

Asking the Uninformed

subjects may provide an answer to a question about which they have no knowledge

unnecessary complexity

when a question isn't simple and easy to understand

Ordering of Questions

The order in which questions are presented can change the results (especially if one question gives more insight on another question asked)

Confidentiality

people answer questions differently depending on how anonymous they believe they are
Ex: if you ask someone if they drink underage, might say no to avoid getting in trouble or being judged

Closed Question

a question in which the respondent is given a list to choose their answer from
Ex: any multiple choice question

Open Question

A question the respondent is allowed to answer with their own words
Ex: short response, essay

Common Language Terms (list them)

Validity
Reliability
Bias
Variability
Natural Variability

Validity

a measure of accuracy, does the research measure what it's supposed to

Reliability

a measure of the consistency of research results

Bias

a measure that is consistently off the mark in ONE direction
Ex: bathroom scale tells you you're 145, 146, 147, you're actually 140

Variability

unpredictable errors or discrepancies, a measure that is off the mark in any direction
Ex: individual test scores vs the class average

Natural Variability

variability that cannot be explained or predicted, that are due to nature
Ex: individual pain tolerance

Population(Parameter)

overall group of individuals that the researchers are interested in
Ex: Ohio University Students

Sampling Frame

a list of individuals from whom the sample is drawn
Ex: Statistics Students

Sample survey(Statistics)

a subset of the population and sampling frame from which the researches are going to study
Ex: Dr. McCartheys 12:30 statistics class of students

Margin of Error

the measure of accuracy of a sample survey(a percentage)
1/ (âˆš n)

methods of sampling(list them)

Simple Random
Stratified Random
Cluster
Systematic
Random digit Dialing

Simple Random Sampling

every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample

stratified random sampling

Dividing the population into groups and then taking a sample from each group
Ex: East, South, West green, take 10 residents from each green

cluster sampling

Divide the population into groups or 'clusters'
Select a random amount of groups
Use all members of the selected groups/clusters
Ex: Take 2 specific dorm halls, interview everyone in those 2 halls

systematic sampling

select some starting point and then select every kth element in the population
Ex: put participants in a line, choose every 4th person

random digit dialing

a polling method in which respondents are selected at random from a list of 10-digit telephone numbers, with every effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample

Multistage Sampling

using a combination of sampling methods

Population(Parameter) symbols

greek symbols: Î¼ (mu) and Ïƒ (lower case sigma)

Ïƒ(baby sigma)

population standard deviation

Î¼(mu)

population mean

Sample (Statistics) symbols

xÌ„ (x bar)
s

xÌ„ (x bar)

sample mean

s

sample standard deviation

Types of Data(list them)

Measurement vs Categorical
Differences vs Relationships

Measurement data

Quantitative data obtained by measuring objects or events(is a number)
Ex: weight, speed, time

Categorical Data

qualitative data representing the count of observations in each category
"How many in a group of"
Ex: a yes or no question

Differences in data

differences occur between groups

Relationship in data

Relationships occur between variables