Unit 3: Molecules and Cells

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Molecules involved with cells; essentials to life from a chemical perspective
Organic Compounds
Contain carbon, mostly covalently bonded(ex. Glucose)
Inorganic Compounds
Lack carbon, simpler compounds
Important Inorganic Compounds
Water: Vital Properties, High heat capacity, solvent, chemical reactivity, cushioning
Easily disassociate into ions in the presence of water, vital to many body functions (sending messages, maintaining cell pressure, etc. Includes electrolytes; most plentiful are calcium and phosphorus
Can release detectable hydrogen ions(protein donor)
Can release hydroxide ion (proton acceptor)
Important Organic Compunds
Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, nucleic acids, ATP
CHO(Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen) Includes sugar and starches Classified by size
Simple sugar
two single sugar joined by dehydration synthesis
Long branching chains of linked simple sugars
CHO(Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen) Carbon and Hydrogen outnumber oxygen Insoluble in water
Triglycerides(neutral fats),
Type of Lipid Found in fat deposits Composed of fatty acids and glycerol Source of Stored energy
Form cell membranes
Includes cholesterol, bile salts, vitamin D, and some hormones
Basis for all steroids
CHON(Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen), and sometimes sulfur Made of Amino Acids Accounts for over 1/2 of the body's organic matter Provides for construction materials for body tissues (fibrous & structural) Vital in cell function(Act as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies)
Nucleic Acids
CHONP(Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus) Provides a blueprint for life Nucleotide bases- Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil(RNA) Makes DNA and RNA
Adenosine Triphosphate(ATP)
Derivative of nucleotide Chemical energy used by all cells Energy is released by breaking high-energy phosphate bonds Energy is replenished by the oxidation of food fuels
Anatomy of the cell
-Cells are organized into their main regions: Nucleus, cytoplasm, and Plasma membrane
Nucleus: Controls cell Cytoplasm: determines the transport Plasma Membrane: restricts/allows movement
Plasma Membrane
A barrier for all contents Double phospholipid layer: Hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail Contains Protein, cholesterol, and glycoprotein
Material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane Cytosol: Fluid that suspends other elements Organelles: Metabolic machinery of the cell Inclusions: Non-functioning units
A homogeneous mixture of two or more components Solvent: dissolving medium (usually water) Solutes: Components within a solution (ex. ions, Na+, Cl-)
Intracellular fluid
fluid inside of the cell such as nucleoplasm and cytosol (Intra=within)
extracellular fluid(interstitial)
Fluid on the exterior of the cell (extra=beyond), (inter-between)
Membrane transport
Movement of a substance into and out of the cell
Selectively Permeable
Allows some substances to pass through while excluding others
Entrance factors
1. Size-huge molecules can't go through 2. Polarity: Extremely polar molecules can't pass through the nonpolar lipid tails of the cell membrane
Passive Transport
Relies on a concentration gradient -the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to a region of low concentration -No energy is required
Types of passive transport
Diffusion(simple) Osmosis Facilitated diffusion Filtration-pressure gradient
Movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration -Requires no energy expended by the cell -Molecules will reach a state of equilibrium
Diffusion of water molecules through a cell membrane
Facilitated Diffusion
Still passive diffusion; no energy expended by the cell Uses the concentration gradient (high to low concentration) to move large particles, polar molecules and ions
Active Transport
Low to High Requires the use of energy (ATP)
Types of Active Transport
Solute pumps (ex. Na+/K+ pump) Bulk Transport: -Exocytosis(exo=out) -Endocytosis(endo=in) Phagocytosis
(exo=out of the cell) Used for big particles 1. Wraps around particle in a vesicle 2. Merge it with a cell membrane 3. Spit it outside the cell
(endo=into the cell) 2 types 1st Phagocytosis: Solid particles Pinocytosis: For fluids 1. Cell comes and engulfs the particle 2. Wraps its membrane around the particle 2nd Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis