English 2332 test 1

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main conflict in Job's story is between
God and Satan
the 4 parts of Jobs story
prologue, symposium, God's reply, and epilogue
theme of Job
Why do good people suffer when the wicked seemingly escape suffering and are permitted to live their lives without penalty and have comfort and security
possible authorship of Job
Job, Elihu, Moses, and Solomon
content of God's speech to Job
doesn't tell him why; describes universal beauties; questions how Job could be a critic; man may not understand the purposes of God
what Job lost and gained
lost- children, wealth, and health gained- wisdom and more faith
indirect and direct causes of the Trojan war
indirect: tossing of the golden apple by Eris into gathering at feast; choosing by Paris of Aphrodite as beautiful goddess; compact of suitors of Helen direct: running away of Helen with Paris to Troy (away from Menelaus—her husband)
location of the Trojan war (today)
Troy ( in Turkey) near Helespoint (Dardanelles)
How many combarants came to Troy
Trojans and Greeks and neighboring groups of people
period of preparation
1 or more years
extent of preparation
1,000 ships and 100,000 men
duration of war
10 years
reason for victory
the will of gods for Greeks to win
means of victory
the Trojan horse stratagem executed by the Greeks under the direction/leadership of Odysseus. They built a wooden horse and left it outside the gates of Troy, as an offering to the gods, while they pretend to give up the battle and sail away.
instances of divine intervention
Greek god intervention- Athena, Hephatus, Hera, Poseidon, Thetis Trojan- Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Zeus
principle characters of the war and why they were on the side they are on
Greeks- Achilles, Agamemnon, Antilochus, Briseis, Diomedes, Ajax, Menelas, Nestor, Odysseus, Patroclus, Phoenix Trojans- Hector, Priam, Hecuba, Andromache, Astyanax, Helen, Paris, Polydamus
how did Hephaestus help in the war against Troy
built Achilles armour/shield
which gods and mortals functioned as messengers in the Iliad
what is the importance of preparing a body for burial after death
burn them out of respect and to get their spirit safely to the underworld
why did apollo abandon help Hector in the battle against Achilles
he knew Hector was fated to die at Achilles hand
what person the Greeks left behind to tell the lie to the Trojans
the Greek and Trojan attitude toward Helen
Greeks- hated her because she was a trader Trojans- loved her because she gave them information about the Greeks
Helen was product of rape
by Zeus
grasping of the knees is used for what purpose in The Iliad
asking and begging for a favor
the 2 poles of the human condition are
war and peace
long, narrative poem which has characters of high position in a series of adventures which connect by a hero
epic formula
invokes a muse, states a theme, begins in medias res, contains long/formal speeches, uses catalogues, uses epic similes, uses epithets, uses repetition
epic characteristics
1. The hero is a person of heroic stature, national or international importance and great historical (or legendary) significance. 2. The action concerns deeds of great valor or requiring superhuman courage. 3. The setting is vast, covering great nations, the world, or the universe. 4. Supernatural forces (such as gods, angels, or demons) interest themselves in the action and intervene from time to time. 5. The writing style presents itself with sustained elevation and grand simplicity. 6. The epic poet recounts the deeds of his heroes with objectivity. 7. The battle in the epic is always a crucial one which decides the outcome of the war.
epic conventions
poet invokes a muse, opens by stating a theme, opens in medias res (middle), gives extended formal speeches, elaborate epic similes, uses epithets, gives long lists "catalogs" repetition of words/phrases
shield of Achilles symbolic of what
war and peace
fashioned by whom
appearance of the shield
made of bronze, tin, silver, and gold; has pictures of earth, sky, sea's water, dun, moon, and constellations, two cities on it representing war and peace
god of wine and fertility
a sad play
tragedy definition
goat song from the Greeks words tragos and ode
choral hymns which took the form of chants, songs, and poems to worship Dionysus
Athenian citizen who traveled organizing local festivals of celebration for Dionysus (1st actor)
3 great Greek playwrights
Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides
satyr plays
largely comic relief from tragedies
consisted of 3 tragedies and a styr play
ruler, leader, chief, mayor
wealthy Athenian citizen who paid the costs of theatrical productions at festivals
reward for the best playwright if the best tragedy
skin of wine and basket of figs
the reward for the playwright of the best satyr play
remaining tragedies
33 tragedies, 11 comedies, and 1 satyr play
seating order
1st row—seats of honor (city officials, choragus) 2nd row—male citizens (also special section for ephebi) 2 sections above—for women very top—slaves/prisoners
the area where the audience sits
priest of Dionysus
18 year old male who is enrolled in military training
was at ground level, enclosed on 3 sides by the U-shaped theatron
altar to Dionysus in center of orchestra (an altar to Dionysus)
entrance passages to the right or left of the theatron
scene building
a 3-sided primitive form of scenery
wheeled platform which rolled out of the scene building to reveal a multitude of things which had taken place indoors
dues ex machina
god from machine
--worn during plays—usually had long sleeves and eye-catching belts worn above waist to show stature, colors could be used to depict a characters emotional state, the tragic hero was set apart by gloves, body padding, and high-heeled buskins, known as cothurnus boots
cothurnus boots
high-heeled buskins (added height and significance to tragic hero)
masks-2 purposes
exaggerated emotion(with painted faces) abd amplified sound (had small megaphones built in)
actors (all male)
chorus members (all male)
structure of drama
1) Prologue-opening scene, background established (few actors) 2) Parados- entrance of the chorus, usually by chanted lyric, related to main theme 3) Episode-like modern acts—plot 4) Stasimon-choral ode, comes at the end of each episode 5) Exodos-final action, ceremonial exit of all players
no violence ever SHOWN on
a Greek stage
tragedy matured during
5th century BC
held in amphitheaters
contributions of Aeschylus
added second actor to stage
contributions of Sophocles
introduced painted scenery; was most popular of the 3 great, Greek playwrights;
contributions of Euripides
(not as popular in his own day); dues ex machine
tragic hero
man of noble stature, usually a prince or king,
tragic flaw
error of judgement at a flaw in a character, Despite all his great qualities, he is afflicted with some fault of character such as ambition, quickness to anger, a tendency to jealousy, or excessive pride, this flaw in his character will be his downfall.
pity and fear
the tragic hero is made to fill the watchers with this
tragic fall will fill the gain in self-knowledge or the change from ignorance to knowledge
emotional release at the end of the play
the 3 unities
time, place, and action
Oedipus The King: meaning of the play;
man's confidence in himself was worth nothing if he abandoned his belief in the gods
conflict of Oedipus
ignorance versus knowledge; Oedipus realized what he did was done in ignorance. That was why he could recover. He acquired that knowledge by terrible suffering. He became the living proof of the divine sovereignty of the gods.
setting of Oedipus
Ancient Greece- Thebes
who were the real foster parents of Oedipus
Foster: Polybus & Merope Real: Laius (who he killed) & Jocasta
what two people does Oedipus accuse of plotting against him
Creon and Tiresias
Medea: know golden fleece story about Jason and his Argonauts
they searched for it and found it in the foreign land of Colchis, where they had to overcome a serpent, bulls, dragon, and warriors. it was here that Jason met Medea and with Aphrodite's power fell in love with her
setting of Medea
Corinth, Jason's home
dues ex machina
(god from machine) complicated plots used by Euripides
Aegeas' visit to Medea causes her to realize what
how important fatherhood is to a man
what does the line mean that King Creon speaks when he asks Medea, "what difference could one day make?"
he was going to allow her one more day to prepare for her and her children's exile, it is ironic because with that one more day she actually ended up murdering him, his daughter, and his step grandchildren
Dramatic irony in Job
Readers know why Job is facing trials, but Job does not
Significance of Job's wife in the story
His wife was taken/died???
12 Olympians
Zeus - god of the sky Hera - goddess of marriage Poseidon - god of the sea Hestia- Goddess of home and hearth Athena - Goddess of wisdom and warfare Apollo - god of the silver bow Artemis - Goddess of the hunt and childbirth Hephaestus - God of Fire Aphrodite - Goddess of love and beauty Hermes - god of roads and doorways Ares - God of war Demeter - goddess of the harvest
God of the Sky,
Goddess of marriage
God of the sea
Goddess of hearth and home
Goddess of wisdom and warfare
God of light and the silver bow
Goddess of the hunt and childbirth
God of fire
goddess of love and beauty
God of commerce, roads and railways
God of war
Goddess of fertility and the harvest
Represented by Achilles
Represented by Hector
Who sets off the wrath of Achilles at the beginning of Book 1
Instances of Divine Intervention
Thetis, Achilles' mother and a sea nymph, asks Zeus to force the Achaeans to lose in battle for a little while, so they will have to grovel back to Achilles. Zeus misleads Agamemnon into thinking the Trojans are doomed for sorrow, to encourage him to depart for battle.
Various ways the Greeks are referred to in the Iliad
Parts of armor made for Achilles
Shield, Corslet, Greaves, Helmet
What is the source of most greek Tragedy
Myths from the oral traditions of archaic epics.
The Oresteia
The overall name of the trilogy Aeschylus wrote. It includes: Agamemnon, The Choephoroe (The Libation Bearers) and The Eumenides.Competing for the last time, the trilogy won for him first place at the Theater of Dionysus. It remains the only complete Greek trilogy we have today.
Greek tragedy is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece and Greek inhabited Anatolia. It reached its most significant form in Athens in the 5th century BC, the works of which are sometimes called Attic tragedy
No blood was shed on stage
Realization, a change from ignorance to recognition
What is the significance of a 24-hour period in tragic plays
A story about murder and revenge
Permanent system of justice
Where disputes would be decided fairly and without bloodshed.
Clytemnestra’s son, Attempted to kill his mother, Athena voted in on his side, and broke the tie in his court case
goddesses of vengeance
History of the House of Atreus
King Atreus had a long-standing quarrel with his younger brother, Thyestes. He had banished Thyestes because Thyestes had plotted against him and seduced his wife. Atreus lured Thyestes out of exile and pretended to resolve his relationship with his brother by way of a banquet in his honor. At the feast, he fed Thyestes the bodies of Thyestes’ own sons. After Thyestes had partaken and discovered the deed, he laid a curse on the entire house of Atreus. Eating the flesh of humans would make Thyestes unclean and therefore unsuitable as a rival for the crown, so Atreus was getting even with Thyestes for seducing his wife and was getting rid of his rival for the crown at the same time. After this incident, Thyestes returned to exile with his remaining son, Aegisthus. The boy would live to avenge the wrongs done to his father.
circumstances concerning how he set sail for Troy and what happened to him on his return home from Troy.
He was forced to sacrifice his daughter, Iphigenia, as a sacrifice to Artemis to gain sailing winds. He told his wife to send the girl to the dock to be married to the great Achilles. Instead, he took her life. Agamemnon was gone for ten years to Troy, and during his absence Aegisthus, his cousin, seduced Clytemnestra. He aided her in plotting the death of Agamemnon upon his victorious return from Troy. This deed was done. Then, Clytemnestra’s son, Orestes, returned to Argos to kill his mother for killing his father. The Furies of Hades pursued Orestes until he was driven mad. He sought help from Athena who convened a court of law (the first) to decide the case. The verdict was split. Athena broke the tie in favor of Orestes. The Furies were furious, but Athena calmed them by offering them a position of honor in the cult of her city, Athens. They accepted and were changed into benevolent spirits. Their name was changed to the kindly ones or the Eumenides.