Phil 1200 Midterm

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29 Terms
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Arguments in philosophy
A sequence of statements, intended to support one or more conclusions The truth of the premises gives you a reason to believe the conclusion
An argument where its premise is true and its conclusion is true, regardless of the correctness of the argument
An argument that is valid, and has all true premises, usually an argument most people can agree on (e.g. the earth is round)
Modus Tollens
If p, then q Not q Therefore not p
Modus Ponens
If p then q p Therefore q
Disjunctive Syllogism
Either p or q It is not the case that p Therefore q
Hypothetical Syllogism
If p then q If q then r If p then r
If p then q If it is not the case that q, then it is not the case that p
What the premises and support leads to
What is revealed by the premises, used to determine what kind of argument it is (indicative, deductive, etc.)
Non-Demonstrative Argument
An argument generally accepted by society but not technically valid
Demonstrative Argument
an argument that gives proof of something
theory/hypothesis x is the best explanation of some observations/facts Theory x is a good explanation So theory x is probably true
Socrates and Euthyphro are both on trial, Euthyphro prosecuting his father who killed an employee for having killed an enslaved person, and Euthyphro is confident hes acting piously/righteously, so Socrates is asking him what piety/righteousness is to him.
Divine Command Theory
Morally required/forbidden actions are required because of god's commands, permissible actions are those where god neither commands nor forbids.
Cultural Relativism
What is ethical depending on a cultures views.
The principle of Utility, pleasure is the only thing that is ultimately valuable, pain is the thing that is ultimately invaluable, utilitarianists will seek out the action that provides the most pleasure and avoid actions that inflict the most pain
Principle of Asceticism
a practice where one gets rid of worldly pleasures and focuses on thinking, particularly for religious or spiritual purposes (e.g. Buddhist Monk)
Measures of pleasure and pain (Utilitarianism)
Its intensity, duration, certainty or uncertainty, its nearness and remoteness, fecundity (its chance of being followed by sensations of the same kind) purity (its chance of not being followed by opposite sensations), and its extent (the number of persons to whom it extends or whos affected by it)
the rights objection (utilitarianism)
charges utilitarianism with being overly permissive. To maximise the sum total of well-being, utilitarianism might be thought to allow infringing upon others’ rights or violating other apparent moral constraints.
The demandingness objection (utilitarianism)
claims that utilitarianism is overly demanding because it requires excessive self-sacrifice from us in order to help others.
The equality objection (utilitarianism)
holds that utilitarianism is not sufficiently concerned with distributive justice and the value of equality.
The mere means objection (utilitarianism)
claims that utilitarianism treats people as “mere means” to the greater good rather than as ends in themselves
The separateness of persons' objection (utilitarianism)
charges utilitarianism with aggregating well-being in an unacceptable way, neglecting the significance of the boundaries between individuals.
The alienation objection (utilitarianism)
alleges that the moral reasons posited by utilitarianism are troublingly cold and aloof, alienating us from the particular people and projects that (rightly) matter to us
The special obligations objection (utilitarianism)
holds that utilitarianism is excessively impartial, and does not sufficiently account for the special obligations that we have to our friends and family.
The founder of utilitarianism, he believed that only two things truly mattered; pleasure and pain. The greatest happiness principle says that the right course of action is the one that leads to the greatest amount of happiness for all those involved
Susan Wolf
She believes there are 2 types of moral saints; the loving saint, and the rational saint. Both have lives organized around satisfying the demands of mortality, though they relate differently to those demands.
An ethical theory that says actions are good or bad according to a clear set of rules. Actions that align with these rules are ethical, while actions that don't, arent.