Motivation Exam 3 (Ch. 10-12)

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101 Terms
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Attribution Theory
A collection of theories concerning factors assumed by the general public to cause people's behavior
Internal (often stable) characteristics, such as personality
Naïve Psychology
The average person doesn't know much about psychology research and theories, but still tried to figure out why people behave the way they do
Dispositional (Internal) Attributions
Abilities, motives, intention, and exertion
The cognitive plan to behave in a particular way
The amount of effort that one is willing to put into the behavior
Situational (External) Attributions
Task difficulty, luck
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to attribute behavior to stable, internal characteristics
The degree to which the behavior is unique within the individual across different situations
We examine other people's behavior in the same situation
The frequency with which the actor engages in the specific behavior in question
Relative permanence of the source of success or failure
The "location" of the source of success or failure
How much someone (not necessarily you) can influence there source of success or failure
Internal, Stable, and Uncontrollable
Internal, Unstable, and Controllable
Task Difficulty
External, Stable, and Controllable
External, Unstable, and Uncontrollable
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to overemphasize stable internal factors as attributions for behavior and underestimate the power of the situation
Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) 4 Factors:
(According to Gilbert and Malone) 1. Situation perception 2. Behavioral expectation 3. Behavior perception 4. Attribution, with or without correction
Actor-Observer Bias
The tendency to think that other people's behaviors are due to dispositional (internal) factors and our own behaviors are due to situational (external) forces
Self-Serving Bias
Tendency for individuals to take credit by making dispositional or internal attributions for their own positive outcomes, and situational or external attributions for their own negative outcomes
False Consensus Effect
Our tendency to believe that most other people think and act the same way that we do
Mastery Orientation
Those who tend to set challenging goals for themselves in order to increase competence
Helpless Orientation
Those who avoid challenging goals and tend to give up easily
Entity Theorists
View themselves and others as acting on the basis of fixed traits (fixed mindset)
Incremental Theorists
View themselves and others as acting on the basis of malleable traits (growth mindset)
Growth Mindset
People are good at things because they worked hard to become good at them
Fixed Mindset
People are good at things because they are born with natural abilities
Role Theory
People may act passively if that is what is expected of them (or what they think is expected of them) in their role
Actualizing Tendency
The striving for wholeness and to become fully functioning
Positive Regard
Comes from others
Positive Self-Regard
Comes from ourselves
Unconditional Positive Regard
A person is accepted and loved regardless of behavior
Conditional Positive Regard
A person is made to feel they are worthwhile only if they behave in certain ways
The Fully Functioning Individual
Openness to experience, Existential living, Trust in one's own organism, Sense of freedom, and Creativity
Peak Experience
A short but intense feeling of awe or exactas often accompanied by a sense of fulfillment, insight, and oneness with something larger than one's self
Time Competence
The self-actualized person appears to live in the present but can meaningfully tie past or future events to the present
Peak Performance
An episode of superior functioning
An intrinsically enjoyable experience
An individual intensely focuses attention to the exclusion of other perceptual events (common to peak performance, peak experience, and flow)
Physiological Arousal
How the body responds to something and how intensely it responds
Psychological Appraisal
Interpretation of the even, informed by experiences, backgrounds, and culture
Subjective Experiences
Personal experiences of emotion; In a way, this is the most like the "feeling" part
The James-Lange Theory
Asserts that subjective emotional experiences arises from physiological arousal
Cannon-Bard Theory
Physiological arousal and subjective emotional experience occur simultaneously, but independently
Schacter-Singer Two-Factor Theory
Emotions consist of two factors--physiological and cognitive
Lazarus' Cognitive-Mediational Theory
Asserts that our emotions are determined by our appraisal of the stimulus
Plays a role in the activation of the sympathetic nervous system
Sensory relay center
Plays a role in processing emotional information
Integrates emotional experience with cognition/memories
Basolateral Complex
(Inside the amygdala) Critical for classical conditioning and attaching emotional value to memory
Central Nucleus
(Inside the amygdala) Involved in attention
Effectance Motivation
Striving for competence
Someone who believes that our behavior is controlled by our own choices
Someone who believes that our behavior is controlled by external forces over which we have no control
Human Agency
The capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one's life
Reciprocal Causation
Our behavior, environment, and personal factors influence each other
Four Core Features of Human Agency
1. Intentionality 2. Forethought 3. Self-reactiveness 4. Self-reflectiveness ^ Self-efficacy: how successful we perceive ourselves to be at attaining the goals we set for ourselves
Personal Agency
Includes Bandura's Four Core Features of Human Agency; Is concerned with agency from the perspective of an individual
Proxy Agency
Taking advantage of another's area of expertise and letting someone with more expertise
Collective Agency
The ability of groups to accomplish more than can be done by the same number of individuals working alone (provided that they work together and share the belief that they can achieve their goal)
Desi & Ryan's Self-Determination Theory
Postulates three basic needs that all humans innately strive to satisfy: 1.) Competence - refers to our need to have some control over our environment (similar to Bandura's concept of agency) 2.) Relatedness - our need to feel a sense of belongingness with others 3.) Autonomy - our need to freely integrate our experiences with our sense of self
Intrinsic Motivation
The value or pleasure associated with an activity as opposed to the goal toward which the activity is directed
Extrinsic Motivation
Emphasizes the external goal towards which the activity is directed
Focusing one's attention on the moment rather than engaging in a pleasure-inducing activity automatically or reflexively
Positive Virtues
Six core qualities that Seligman believed to be valued intrinsically (Wisdom, Courage, Humanity, Justice, Temperance, and Transcendence)
Positive Individual Traits / Strengths
Traits people can have that can be exercised to help an individual to develop virtues
Positive Institutions
Develop when individuals use their strengths in the service of the greater good
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to attribute behavior to stable, internal characteristics has been called:
The unique components of behavior
According to Jones and Davis, attributions usually are formed by observing:
Attribution Independent
In Weiner's attribution theory, achievement-related results initially produce _______ affect, in which the outcome itself triggers happiness or sadness, depending on success or failure.
Fixed mindset; growth mindset
Rachel and Krystal decide to take a painting class together. On the first day of class, both of them are really bad at painting and they find doing the painting techniques to be really difficult. Rachel gets discouraged and quits the class after the first day, because she thinks that because she's really bad now, that means she's naturally bad at art and she'll never be able to be a good artist. Krystal stays in the class because she knows that even though she is bad at painting now, she will get better if she persists and tries hard. Rachel has a(n) _______________ and Krystal has a(n) _______________.
Actor-Observer Bias
When Annalise is late for class, Max attributes her lateness to not caring about school or doing well in class. However, when Max is late for class, he attributes his own lateness to the heavy traffic and bad drivers. This is an example of:
Mastery; Helpless
In achievement attribution studies, Diener and Dweck (1978) suggest that individuals with a(n) ______ orientation set challenging goals, and individuals with a(n) ______ orientation avoid challenging goals.
False Consensus Effect
In attribution, the tendency to believe that most other people think and act the same way that we do is called the:
Hedonic relevance
All of the following principles of attribution have been proposed by Kelley EXCEPT: - Covariation - Hedonic relevance - Distinctiveness - Consensus
Task Difficulty
Which of the following terms is associated with situational influences rather than dispositional influences? - Intention - Locus - Ability - Task Difficulty
Self-Serving Bias
In attribution, the tendency to take credit for one's own success and to avoid responsibility for failure is called the:
Unconditional Positive Regard
Rogers's idea that a person is accepted and loved regardless of behavior is called:
Higher-level needs will not be tended to until lower-level needs are fairly adequately satisfied
According to Maslow:
The person focuses attention on the experience or is absorbed by the experience
Peak experiences, peak performance, and flow are concepts that share some characteristics, although differing in others. Which of the following is the common quality shared by each of these events that is mentioned in the text?
Kenrick and colleagues (2010) have proposed a reformulated needs hierarchy. Which one of Maslow's needs did they NOT include in their theory? - Safety - Self-Actualization - Esteem - Physiological Needs
Robert White (1959) defined _______ as the capacity to interact effectively with one's environment.
Internal and external locus of control
deCharms's concepts of "origins" and "pawns" are really similar to something that we've already learned about in this class, in a previous chapter. Which pairing of concepts that we previously learned about is most similar to the concepts of origins and pawns?
Maya will start to enjoy the topic LESS, because she is now doing it for an external goal
Maya is working on her dissertation, which for her basically means writing an approximately 100 page paper about the scientific literature and her project, giving a presentation, and having a group of professors critique her project in front of her. She is doing this so she can obtain a PhD. When she picked her topic, the topic was something that she was really interested in and super passionate about, and she would spend time researching it just because she enjoyed it. When considering Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory and the sources of motivation, which of the following is the most likely to occur while Maya is working on her dissertation?
Positive outlooks
Which one of the following is NOT one of Seligman's aspects of human functioning? - Positive institutions - Positive individual traits and virtues - Positive outlooks - Positive enmotions
Physiological and safety needs
The first two stages in Maslow's hierarchy of needs are:
Reciprocal Causation
In Bandura's theory, the complex interplay between behavior, cognition, and environmental factors is called:
Sadness, fear, anger, disgust, contempt, happiness, and surprise
The seven universal emotions are:
The James-Lange Theory
Which theory of emotion asserts that subjective emotional experience arises from physiological arousal?
The Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory
Which theory of emotion asserts that emotions consist of physiological arousal and cognitive labeling of physiological arousal?
Lazarus's Cognitive-Mediational Theory
Which theory of emotion asserts that our emotions are determined by our appraisal of the stimulus, and the physiological response comes after the subjective emotional experience?
The ____________ integrates emotional experience with cognition/memories:
The basolateral complex (which is part of the ___________) is critical for classical conditioning and attaching emotional value to memory
Can be learned through the observation of others
According to Bandura, emotionality:
The facial feedback hypothesis
The idea that our movements allow us to experience particular emotions is called:
Schachter-Singer Theory
You feel your heart pounding and your breathing quickening while in a job interview and conclude you're anxious. Later, when another person insults you, your heart is pounding and your breathing is quickening, and you conclude you're angry. These two scenarios are consistent with which theory of emotion?