Companion Animal Management Exam 2

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-  Most fish will have at least one dorsal fin on the back, a single anal fin and a single tail fin.
- All fish breath through gills, usually 4 gills on each side of fish. 
- Water is constantly drawn in through the mouth (constant opening and closing) passing through the gills and out the gill openings on the side of the fish. 
- O2 dissolved in the water is taken into the blood and CO2 is released from the blood in the gills into the water.
- Fills with gases from the blood and allows the fish to maintain a particular depth (buoyancy).
   Trout – single;  goldfish – 2 chambered;  Angelfish – 3 chambered 
- In a few species of fish, it may act like a lung – they can breathe atmospheric air (As an adaptation in fish that live in swamps and some waters that are poorly oxygenated).
- In most fishes, the heart is a single two-chambered pump. Deoxygenated blood is pumped forward from the ventricle to the gills where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. 
- The oxygenated blood then passes to the tissues, where it loses oxygen, and eventually returns to the heart, which it enters through the single atrium.
- Spherical lens can not change curvature so focuses by moving in the eye.
- Fish have no eyelids.  
- Size of the eye depends on amount of light it receives (Fish found in caves may have no or degenerated eyes)  
- Different types of cone and rod cells.
- Fish have taste buds in their mouth, on their lips, tongue, and on their body and fins. 
- Many fish will have barbell (whisker-like projections) around their mouth which will also have taste buds. 
- Fish taste buds have the ability to distinguish the difference between sweet, sour, salty, and bitter >>>> some scientists said<<
- Egg layers can then be broken down into 5 different groups.
- All egg layers – (External fertilization) the eggs are fertilized after being laid.  
- Sperm from the male is known as Milt.
- The behavior of expelling the eggs and fertilization by the male is known as spawning.
Egg scatters are divided into; 
- Those lay adhesive eggs and will stick to any object in the aquarium (glass, marbles, decoration and plants)- Barbs and tetras fish. (top 2)
- Or fish whose eggs are not adhesive, and which simply fall to the bottom. Danios (such as zebras), koi and goldfish or fantails are typical non-adhesive egg layers. (bottom 2)

- They are laying a very large number of eggs, Once laid, there is no parental care of the eggs or fry (hatchlings).
-  Almost all or at least 80% of the eggs are being eaten by other fishes in the aquarium.
1.  Reduce the light – encourage spawning and increases the number of eggs produced.
2. Have very dense plants – adults have difficulty swimming among plants to find eggs and fry.
3.  Put glass marbles on the floor of the aquarium (couple of layers), eggs will settle between marbles and adults cannot get to them. 
4.  Use a spawning tank
- They pick a suitable spot (glass, wood, rock, plants) to lay all their sticky eggs, female lays eggs and male fertilizes them.
- Parents usually take turns in guarding and cleaning eggs (excellent parents).
- When eggs hatch, parents protect fry from predators.
- They lay fewer and larger-sized eggs than egg scatters.  Most cichlids (Discus, Oscar and Angel fish).
- Nest is usually constructed by the male, may be a saliva or slime blown bubble nest on the surface – or on bottom of the aquarium. 
- Remove the female after eggs are fertilized – the male will become aggressive toward her. 
- Male guards and tends the nest. Gouramis, Betta fish, and some cichlids.
Annual killifish
- They live in rivers and ponds that dry up each year, before drying they lay eggs and bury then into the mud, and die when water dries, a few months later rain will return, eggs will hatch and a new generation will start
•  Aquarium should have 2-3 inches of peat in bottom for these fish.
•  Reduce the level of water gradually this will stimulate females to lay eggs
• Need to remove the peat with the eggs, squeeze out the water and store eggs in a sealed plastic bag for 2-3 months. 
• Return peat to water for eggs to hatch since the water stimulate eggs to hatch
- Fish that carry their eggs in their mouth until they hatch, moreover hatched young generally are carried in mouth until they can fend for themselves. 
- Eggs are laid by female, fertilized by male, then picked up by mouth in some species by the male, some other species by the female.  
- Eggs incubate in the parents mouth for 2-3 weeks. Parent fish does not eat during this time. 

Some Cichlids and some betta fish
- Viviparous – the internal young are nourished by the females 

- Ovoviviparous – the internal young are kept inside the egg and 
nourished by a yolk sac but inside the female body. 

- The anal fin of the male is modified so that he can deposit milt into the vent of the female.

- Modification is called a gonopodium and can be used to identify the male of the species.

- Females can store milt in oviduct and produce several broods from 1 mating
meat-eating fish, their GIT can only digest animal-based diet with high protein content. 
- They need not less than 45% protein in their diet (Earthworms, Red worms, Tubifex worms  + Supplements in the form of flakes or granules and pellets for added nutrition)
        (Some members of the cichlid family, Oscar and catfish)
plant-eating fish, their GIT can only digest plant-based diet (also eat algae and live plants in the aquarium) and extract nutrients out of it. (Mollies) 
- Cucumber, peas, and potatoes. These can be kept frozen and be chopped into tiny pieces at mealtime. 
- Vegetable flakes come in a variety of flavors. 
- Algal flakes will also be a favorite among this kind of fish. 
eat pretty much anything, and that makes them dangerous to plants as well as to other smaller creatures in your aquarium, includes most of the aquarium fish.
- Cucumber, peas, and potatoes. These can be kept frozen and be chopped into tiny pieces at mealtime. 
- Vegetable flakes come in a variety of flavors. 
- Algal flakes will also be a favorite among this kind of fish. 
1-  Type of food is mainly depending on the species (most of the fresh 
water aquarium fish are omnivores)
- Fish should be fed 2 – 3 times a day, but only as much as they can eat 
in 3 to 5 minutes.
- Over feeding and decayed organic matters are a major cause of 
problems in an aquarium. 

- Flake foods are ideal for fish up to about 5 inches long.

- Pellet food is good for larger fish and bottom feeding fish. 

- Live foods is good source of protein and other essential elements. Brine Shrimp, river shrimp, earthworms, flies, maggots, mosquito larvae, tubifex worms, drosophila larvae
especially important as fish cannot synthesize it. 
- Important as an antioxidant and for cartilage formation.  
- If you have a vitamin C deficiency, see a condition called lordosis – a curvature of the spine in the vertical plane.  The head and tail are down and the middle of the spine is up. 
- Other signs of Vitamin C deficiency include lethargy and generally poor health. 
- Scoliosis (broken back disease) – similar to rickets, generally from a deficiency of Vitamin C, but can also be from Vitamin D or Tryptophan deficiency . Sideways curvature of spine – fish appears S-shaped if viewed from dorsal surface.
The regular shape of the tank is horizontal rectangular, that shape guarantees the maximum water surface area which is very important for gas exchange. 
- Modern shapes include cubes, vertical rectangular, or even panoramic tanks.
- It might be also built into a piece of furniture that often has shelves or closets to hide pumps and other equipment. 
- However, the shape of the tank should maintain an adequate surface area to maintain adequate gas exchange.
Most of the commercial tanks are made of glass assembled and glued together with Silicone joints; these materials are suitable for water volumes up to 500 liters. (you can do that yourself). 
- For bigger volume tanks the polyester resin and cement are used with only the front side made of glass (public aquariums).
- Plexiglas is also used but it is very light, and durable and can be used for wonderful shapes (round aquarium) but it is easily scratchable and can not be used for very large volumes (bigger than glass and smaller than public aquarium).
- Plastic tanks, durable usually are made of inert plastic that does not react with water or any chemical but used only for small volumes tanks and enhances algae growth.
the general rule to maintain an adequate surface area is 
             "length = Height  × 1.5-2.5” 
“ Height is usually slightly greater than the width”
- This rule can be adhered to up to a length of 1.5m, as the height 
should never exceed 0.5m, also not applied in built-in tanks.

- Tanks with higher ratio height will result in an inadequate surface area and irregular vertical distribution of Oxygen since the surface area is the only source for gas exchange. 
       (If not using mechanical Aerators)
- Also, very narrow tanks is a trick of the eye, since a tank seems one-third narrower when filled with water, producing an unfortunate visual effect.
After introducing fish to the aquarium they immediately begin to release waste into the water in the form of excreta and body secretions, both of which contain Nitrogen, also decayed organic matters and waste product of algae contain Nitrogen .
- Nitrogen in the water is quickly converted into Ammonia or Ammonium (NH3, NH4), which are highly toxic to almost all the animals, particularly fish, result in severe irritation of fish gills, eyes, and skin (1 mg/L is toxic level).
- Also, they tend to bind with dissolved oxygen (result in the formation of nitrite and nitrates; NO2 and NO3) which might lead to hypoxia (reduced oxygen level in water) and fish suffocation. 
- Beneficial bacteria populations (Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter = nitrogen fixing bacteria) are responsible for nitrogen cycle in the water.
- Bacterial colonies rapidly utilize ammonia and convert them into Nitrites then into Nitrates as part of their metabolism, Nitrates then can be used as (absorbed) a fertilizer and metabolic enhancer for the plants and algae in the aquarium or can be (assimilated) during the gas exchange or removed by water filtration.
(suspended matters; decomposed plants, feces, food, urine, dust and other impurities). 
- Accumulation of this substance is very harmful to fish health and 
wellbeing; reduce light, prevent the uniform distribution of temp and O2, increase the incidence of diseases, and reduces the gills ability to absorb dissolved oxygen.  
- So, Water Filtration is very important Water Filter might be;   
a. Under bed or gravel (very important also for keeping nitrogen fixing bacteria
b. inside or outside the aquarium with activated charcoal and filter wool
- The general rule for the stocking density of small species is 
             “1 cm of fish per 1 liter of fresh water”                           
(see table for precise calculations).
diff types (be able to recognize them and know their key characteristics)
– Caused by the ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.
- It is probably the most important disease of freshwater aquarium fishes, and essentially all aquarium fish are susceptible to the infection. 

Clinical and behavioral signs: 
1- Clinical findings: Small white pimples (salt or sugar granules =  
tissue reaction ?) throughout the body or may be concentrated mainly 
on the fins. 
- Behavioral findings: (due to skin irritation) 
1- Anorexia (loss of appetite, refusing all food, emaciation)
2- Rapid breathing due to stress 
    (mouth opening and movement of the operculum)
3- The fish is not schooling (isolate itself), or resting on the bottom
4- Rubbing and scratching against objects - Called “Flashing” 
- Skin damage and loss of the slime layer
- Opens an entry to infection with 2ry bacterial, fungal or viral disease 
- Usually ends with death within few days If not treated.

Diagnosis and treatment:
1- Clinical and behavioral signs (white spots)
2- Microscopic examination of skin and gills. Remove several "white spots" from an infected fish, then mount them on a microscope slide with a few drops of water (Trophont = horse-shoe nucleus).
ch can only be killed in the Theront stage 
- Increase temperature of tank to 78 – 80o F to speed up life cycle of the organism: 
Convert all the stages to Theront and then apply chemical treatment. 
Formaldehyde, Metronidazole, Aquarium salt and salt of malachite green drops into water and fish salt bath 2% or salt dip 5%.
1- Penetration stage; by the Free-swimming infective stage “Theront”
- It is a piriform ciliated organism (to help free-swimming), with an apical perforatorium structure (works as a mechanical driller to penetrate through the fish skin). 
- It contains Muco-cyst that contain hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes responsible for tissue lysis during penetration of the fish skin. 

2- Growth and differentiation stage; by an Obligate fish associated stage “Trophont”
- After penetration, the single cell organism starts to feed on fish skin/tissue by using a mouth-like structure called Cyto-stome causing severe tissue irritation and damage.
- The Trophont then expand can reach up to 1 mm size (seen by naked eye on fish body).

3- Multiplication; once the Trophont reached the mature size it will    
1- Stop feeding on fish tissue 
2- Extricate itself from the fish body
3- Release mucous to form a protective “gelatinous wall” protect himself  called “Tomont”. 
- The Tomont then undergo binary division result in formation of Tomites (immature Theront without Cilia), maturate then into Theront.
- The Tomont wall then rupture and release more than 3000 Theronts (the free-swimming infective stage)
- Caused by parasites “Chilodonella” that attach to the skin causing severe irritation and – fish produces large amounts of slime or mucus in response to the irritation. 
- Genus Chilodonella include several organism, can infect fresh, brackish and marine water fishes

Clinical and behavioral signs:
1- Increase secretion of mucus, with an overall slimy, patchy or mottled grey appearance. 
2- These films of mucus and cellular debris may become detached from the skin surface leaving skin ulcer .
3- The fish is not schooling (isolate itself), or resting on the bottom
4- Rubbing and scratching against objects due to skin irritation.
5- Anorexia > Emaciation and death 

- Infection of gills will results in signs of hypoxia; Rapid breathing (mouth opening and movement of the operculum), swimming on surface or near aerator. 

- Raising water temperature to 86 Fahrenheit, add aquarium salt at a dose of 0.4 to 0.7 ounce per gallon. 
- Warm, saline conditions should be maintained for 7 to 14 days. 
- If salt solution does not work, use a formalin,  Potassium Permanganate bath, cupper sulfate, or 2% salt solution bath for up to 7 days. 
- Isolate the infected fish
- Dactylogyrus  (Gill flukes) which attach to the gills and vary from 0.5 
to 3.00 mm long ( Attach by tiny hooks and have a sucking mouth) 
- It everts its pharynx  through  the  mouth  and releases a digestive 
solution  with  proteolytic  enzymes  (digest  and  liquefy  tissue 
proteins) which dissolves fish tissue >> Mucous and dissolved tissue 
are then sucked into the gut. 

Clinical and behavioral signs: 
- Hypoxia or suffocation (reduced O2 level in the blood) and fast-
moving gills, swim at the surface or near the aerator stone, and pant 
heavily trying to get more O2. 
- Death due hyperplasia, swelling and edema of the gills tissue which 
interfere with oxygen exchange (Suffocation and hypoxia)  

Diagnosis: Detect the flukes or inflammation of gill filaments 

Treatment :
- Raising water temperature to 86 Fahrenheit, add aquarium salt
- With salt, Malachite green, Methylene blue or formalin baths.
- Gyrodactylus (Skin flukes) which attach themselves to the body of 
the fish, can reach up to 5 mm in size seen by naked eye. 
- It causes severe skin irritation, fishes perform severe rubbing and scratching against objects due to skin irritation.
- This leads to slime production in response to the irritation and may lead to detached skin, leaving ulcers that might lead to secondary bacterial,  fungal or viral infection.

Diagnosis; can be seen by naked eyes or using a magnifying lens

- Removal by curved tip tweezers
- Raising water temperature to 86 F, add aquarium salt
- With salt, Malachite green and Methylene blue and formalin baths.
- Occasionally caused by Hexamita (flagellated protozoa). 
- The organism lives peacefully in the intestinal tract but when the fish immunity falls down, it then migrates to internal organs, skin, and muscle tissue.  
- The organism multiplies, it destroys tissue causing necrosis (tissue death).
- The decayed tissue breaks away leaving holes in the body
- Which leads to secondary bacterial or viral infection and death.   
-  Lesions are most common around the head and lateral line.

Another theory suggested that: 
- Lack of minerals (Ca, Ph) and vitamins (C, D) from poor nutrition, and the use of activated charcoal stimulate the organism
- Stress due to poor water quality and aggression. 

Mainly a problem on cichlids, angel fish, and discus fish.

Remove the underlying problem! 
- Treatment by Metronidazole (Antiprotozoal and antibiotic) added to water as treatment + Mineral and Vitamin supplements
- Fungi spores (opportunistic M.O.) are present throughout most aquariums, but only under certain conditions they will flourish up and causing clinical infection: 

Predisposing factors (underlying problems)
1- Poor water quality: PH, salinity, turbidity, hardness. 
2- Poor hygiene such as    - dead fish OR Large amounts of decomposing organic material in the tank (high levels of ammonia or nitrites)
3- Overstocking, irregular temperature and/or oxygen distribution 
4- Fish that are injured (bullying by other fishes), old, or have other diseases (stressed)
5- Improper nutrition: Vitamin or mineral deficiency
6- Always occurs as a secondary infection after another disease.

- Caused by Saprolegnia fungus organism
- It appears as a cotton-like substance concentrated mainly on surface injuries of the body or fins
- Lesions will lead to stress and irritation > anorexia, hypoxia and death.
- Secondary bacterial or viral infections are common 

Treatment: remove the underlying problem! 
- May have to scratch off the affected tissue and treat wound with iodine.
- Improve water quality and raise water temperature to 86 Fahrenheit, add aquarium salt
- Use antifungal along with antibacterial to prevent secondary bacterial infection
- Fin rot is usually a bacterial disease involving opportunistic bacteria such as Aeromonas, Pseudomonas or Flexibacter that around in all aquatic 

Predisposing factors (underlying problems):
1- Poor water quality: PH, salinity, turbidity, hardness. 
2- Poor hygiene such as dead fish or large amounts of decomposing organic material in the tank (high levels of ammonia or nitrites)
3- Overstocking, irregular temperature and/or oxygen distribution 
4- Fish that are injured (bullying by other fishes), old, or have other diseases (stressed)
5- Improper nutrition: Vitamin or mineral deficiency 
6- Fin nipping by other fish: Fish fin injury 

- It results in necrotic loss of fin tissue, resulting in split or ragged fins. (bottom photos)
- It is usually the edge of the fin that is attacked.  
- Occasionally a hole may appear in the middle of the fin. 
- Secondary fungal infections are very common

- In bacterial fin rot the edge of the lesion is usually inflamed and red in color unlike when a secondary fungal infection occurs, it shows the opaque or whitish color at edges (top four photos)

Treatment: remove the underlying problem! 
- May have to trim off necrotic tissue with sterile curved scissors and treat wound with iodine.
- Commercially available antibiotic (i.e., Erythromycin) and antifungal water treatments.
- Name is incorrect as this is actually a gram-negative rod bacterial disease, called Columnaris bacteria (several spp.) 
- It will typically attach themselves to a fish's head, mouth, lips, or inside the mouth (cotton mouth) or body (Saddleback)

1- Cotton mouth: 
Fish usually dies mainly due to starvation 
- Starts with redness and inflammation and then turn into cotton like substance, commonly called cotton-mouth because the fish's mouth seems to be covered with a thread-like cottonish substance. 

2- Saddleback:
- Columnaris can also appear as yellowish-brown, white, or grayish-white spots on some part of the body which are usually surrounded by a cottony a lesion (BIG ULCER).
- Ulcerations develop within 24 to 48 hours. 
- Fatality occurs between 48 and 72 hours

Treatment: A medicated fish bath (using methylene blue or potassium permanganate and salt) and antibiotic (i.e., Kanamycin) for several days.
1- There are around  1,407 human common pathogens known to infect humans and cause severe illness, about 61% are zoonotic.
2- Moreover around 70% of emerging diseases are zoonotic (Ex. Ebola virus, SARS, Salmonellosis, Influenza (bird and swine), plague, BSE .....).
3- Most of the human diseases originated primarily in animals, HIV; originated in animals and was a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans in early 20th century. 
However, those diseases that involve animals to human 
transmission (Directly or indirectly) are called zoonotic diseases.
Over than 200 zoonotic diseases were fully identified, most of them are highly infectious, causing severe illness and may lead to death.
Ingestion of contaminated food with pathogens;  Infection mostly 
happens due to improper hand hygiene after contact with infected 
or carrier animals or their fomites.

Some animals might show clinical signs such as diarrhea while most of the animals do not show any clinical signs but still able to shed bacteria and contaminate the environment.

Reptiles (snakes and particularly turtles), most of the birds particularly baby chicks, fresh water aquarium, and small rodents are usually carriers and will never show clinical signs.

Dogs, cats, rabbits and other small companion animals might be positive and transmit infection without showing signs as well.
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella spp.
- About 40% of cats carry Bartonella at some time in their lives.
- Infected cats that carry with Bartonella do not show any signs of illness; therefore, you cannot tell which cats can spread the disease to you. 
- Kittens are more likely to be infected and to pass the bacterium to people.
- Mild infection at the point of injury, lymph nodes, especially those 
around the head, neck, and upper limbs, become swollen. 
- Fever, headache, fatigue, and a poor appetite for about a week. 
- Rare complications of Bartonella infection are bacillary angiomatosis (reddish elevated lesions often surrounded by a scaly ring) and or severe eye lesion in case of eye infection.
- Poor hair coat with irritated and reddened skin (erythema); darkened skin (hyperpigmentation); Not itchy BUT - itchiness (pruritus); and hair loss (alopecia), which may be patchy or circular (diffused). The classic sign of circular hair loss is most commonly seen in cats.
- Itchy, red, raised, scaly patches that may blister and ooze. - The patches often have sharply-defined edges, they are often redder around the outside with normal skin tone in the center (This may create the appearance of a ring)- When your scalp or beard is infected, you will have bald patches.- If nails are infected, they become discolored, thick, and even crumble.
- Microscopic Sarcoptic mange – burrowing mites cause sarcoptic mange, also known as scabies.
- These mites will burrow through the skin causing intense itching and irritation. 
- The scratching that results from mange is what causes the majority of the animal's hair to fall out, and crusting. 
- This is a treatable medical condition but is highly contagious for other animals and humans.
- Sarcoptic mange mites affect mainly dogs of all ages, during any time of the year. 
- It also can affect other animals as well and transmitted to humans (i.e., Rabbit, Guinea pigs ).
Clinical signs include:
• Generalized hair loss
• Skin rash
• Crusting
• Skin infections may develop secondary to the intense irritation.
Symptoms and signs of scabies include generalized intense itching; the condition is sometimes called the "seven year itch."

Symptoms and signs of scabies on the skin vary and may include short, linear, or nodular "burrows" between the fingers, tiny red bumps and blisters on the skin, or a widespread, crusted rash. Often, there are no visible skin lesions.
- Toxoplasmosis in cats; 
- Usually, can be transmitted through the placenta in pregnant cats, results in early abortion around 20-30 days of pregnancy, might also lead to kittens might die before weaning due to several congenital defects. 
-In non-pregnant cats and males, will display gastrointestinal and/or respiratory signs (anorexia, fever, vomiting, diarrhea).
- Usually the clinical signs disappear after that and the animal become carrier. 
- Uncommon; They might also show ocular signs and (Retinal degeneration) blindness and neurologic signs such as circling and incoordination.
- The most common Toxocara parasite of concern to humans is 
T. canis, which puppies usually contract from the mother before 
birth or from her milk. 
- The larvae mature rapidly in the puppy’s intestines; when the pup 
is 3 or 4 weeks old, they begin to produce large numbers of eggs 
that contaminate the environment through the animal’s stool. The 
eggs soon develop into infective larvae.
• You or your children can become infected after accidentally ingesting (swallowing) infective Toxocara eggs from larvae in soil or other contaminated surfaces.
• Eggs are extremely resistant and can remain viable for years.
- Adaptations in the skull allow snakes to eat prey much larger than themselves.
1- The Jaw bones are connected by elastic ligaments, allowing a lot of stretch. 
2- The joint of the upper and lower jaws is placed very posterior (far back) in the skull, allowing the mouth to open as wide as possible. 
3- The bones of the lower jaw are not fused together at the front, which means, they can move apart when the snake is swallowing large prey.
4-  Snake has an additional loosely-attached bone called a "quadrate" on each side. 

- This provides a "double hinge" at the joint and as a snake swallows, it alternately moves the jaws on each side of the face and "walks" the prey into its mouth.
- Teeth in Constrictor dentition; backwards curve of the teeth toward the throat and act as hooks to prevent live prey from wiggling loose. 
- Snake teeth are both attached to the bone and able to grow back when lost, and a snake may have several sets of teeth throughout its lifetime. 
- This is necessary, because teeth are often lost while feeding.
- Groove fangs: has a groove that serves as a path for the venom to flow into the prey from the venom glands located on the top of the head.
- Hollow fangs: are more like a hypodermic needle through which the venom flows. 
- These fangs can be either erectile or fixed, the erectile teeth areretracted into a groove on the roof of the mouth and extend when the mouth opens to strike, but fixed fangs are always extended.
Trachea opening is located at the front of the mouth so they can breath while holding and swallowing their prey. 
- Most snakes have an elongated right lung and a small left lung, except Boa and Python.
!!! all snakes are escape artists. !!!
- Cages should have tight fitting lids and tight seams, aquariums make excellent housing for snakes. 
- Flooring substrate should be compatible with type of snake. Shaving or wood chips for burrowing snakes, sand for desert snakes, branches for climbing snakes, indoor/outdoor carpet, etc) 
- All snakes should have a place to hide (box, upside down flower pot, etc.).
- Snakes are Poikilotherms (Ectotherms) and can live at a range of temperatures, but most prefer warm temperatures – 
             mid 70’s to mid 80’s (oF).  Won’t eat if too cool.
- Most snakes are solitary and should be housed separately. 
- Some snakes, especially king snakes, eat other snakes (Ophiophagus)