a&p exam 4 review

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73 Terms
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The structure attaches a muscle to bone and helps stabilize a synovial joint?
the study of the muscular system
Whether secretion is one of the muscular system functions
No? – (they secrete an unidentified hormone they coined musclin)
The term that best describes muscle fibers arranged in bundles
Fascicle (can also be called myocites) – is a bundle of muscle fibers bound together bound by tissue that provide pathways for blood vessels and nerves
The muslce shape of which the rectus femoris is an example of
The name of the tissue sheet that seperate individual muscle fibers from each other
The term that refers to a muscle that prevents a bone from moving during an action
The name of the prime mover muscle for inhalation
The structure that connects the frontal and occipital bellies of the occipitofrontal (Epicranius) muscle
Epicranial aponeurosis or also called galea aponeurotica
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The name of the deepest muscle of the muscles of the abdominal wall
Transverse abdominis
From a list of muscles, select the muscle that is not externally visible on the trunk of the body**
Transverse Abdominal
The muscle that is divided by the tendinous intersections into segments that are externally visible on the abdomen of a well-muscled person
Transverse abdominis
The antagonist muscle to the triceps brachii
Biceps brachii
The longest muscle in the human body
Sartorius muscle
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From a list of muscles select the muscle that is/isn’t part of the SITS muscles.
Muscles of the Rotator cuff (S)ubscapularis (I)nfraspinatus (T)eres Minor (S)upraspinatus
From a list of muscles select the muscle that is/isn’t part of the quadriceps muscles
- Rectus Formus - Vastus Lateralis - Vastus Intermedius - Vastus Medialis R.TRIPLE V
From a list of muscles select the muscle that is/isn’t part of the hamstrings
- Biceps Femoris - Semimembranosus - Semitendinosus B.S.S
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From a list of muscles select the muscle that is/isn’t part of the mastication muscle
- Temporalis - Masseter - Medial pterygoid - Lateral pterygoid muscles o Secondary muscles/accessory  - Buccinator  - Suprahyoid muscles  - Mylohyoid  - Geniohyoid  - Infrahyoid muscles
The names of the muscles that form(s) the calf muscle
2 main muscles - Gastrocnemius - Soleus
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The property/characteristic of muscle tissue that gives all muscle types the ability respond to electrical stimulus.
Excitability – the ability to respond to stimulus delivered by a neuron or hormone
The property/characteristic of muscle tissue that refers to the ability of a muscle to stretch
Extensibility – ability to be stretched (Elasticity – ability to recoil back to its original length)
**The type of conscious control of the skeletal muscle
Voluntary control
**The number of nuclei contained a skeletal muscle fiber has
Can contain up to several tens (invertebrates) Or several hundred (vertebrates)
The type of myofilament that runs through the core of a thick filament and anchors it to a Z disc
Elastic filament
The purpose of the Triad
Allows for Ca2+ to release when a muscle fiber is excited(responding to stimuli)
**The sarcoplasmic reticulum of a muscle fiber corresponds to what type of cellular organelle in other tissue cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum
**The components of the triad
T-tubule and 2 adjacent terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
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The type of filaments that are predominantly made of myosin
Thick filament
**The structure that marks the boundaries of a sarcomere
Z-Bands or also called Z-Lines or Z-Discs
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The band that contains overlapping thick and thin filaments
Myofibril - Be thought of as stack of sarcomeres - The A-Band (has thick filaments) partly overlapped with thin filaments
The name of neurons that are specialized to detect stimuli, vs the name of_ neurons that send signals to the effectors of the nervous system.
Specialized to detect stimuli – afferent Neurons that send signals to effectors - efferent
**The type of neurons (sensory, motor, afferent, efferent, interneuron) that make up more than 90% of the functional neurons in the nervous system
60. The most common structural type of neurons (multipolar, bipolar, unipolar, anoxonic)
**What the term ”nerve fiber” refers to?
The threadlike structural part of the nerve cell
The name of the glial cell that wraps around nerve fibers in the PNS
The threadlike structural part of the nerve cell
The name of the glial cell that wraps around nerve fibers in the PNS
Schwann cells
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The name of the primary site on a neuron for receiving signals from other neurons?
Dendrite Receive synaptic inputs from axons
The name of the cells forming myelin sheath in the spinal cord
Oligodendrocytes but schwann cells for the peripheral nervous systems
The ion that has the greatest influence on the resting membrane potential
The event resulting from opening sodium gates
Depolarization When positively charged ions rush into a neuron with the opening of a voltage gated sodium channels
From a list of inflowing & outflowing ions, select the one that causes hyperpolarization
The event resulting from the shifting of the voltage of the plasma membrane from +35 to 0 mv
From a list of events, select the one that can occurs during the absolute refractory period
- Action potential leaves the Na+ channels inactivated and the K+ channels activated for a lil bit - This makes it harder for the axon to make subsequent action potentials during this interval (i.e. refractory period)
The property of neurons that allows them to respond to changes in the environment
The term that describes the alternating light and dark bands in a skeletal muscle
The protein that acts as a calcium receptor in skeletal muscle
The number of somatic motor neurons needed to stimulate one muscle fiber
Only one
The structure from which acetylcholine is released to stimulate muscle contraction
The postganglionic
The effect on the permeability of the sarcolemma to Na+ when acetylcholine stimulates/binds its receptors in the neuromuscular junction
The permeability of the sarcolemma to Na+ increases
**Choosing the statement that best describes the resting membrane potential in terms of charge type in the intracellular /extracellular membrane environment
Resting membrane potential is the electrical potential or voltage That’s in a plasma membrane of an unstimulated nerve cell
**The effect of the absence or inhibition of acetylcholinesterase at a synapse
Tetanus would lead to - Flaccid plaralysis - Tetanus - Atrophy - Numbness - Muscle wasting
The muscle type that depends solely on the sarcoplasmic reticulum as its calcium source
Skeletal muscle
The movement of which structure that uncovers the binding sites of myosin during muscle contraction
The structure that forms cross bridges with binding sites on actin myofilaments
Globular heads of myosin
The part of the muscle cell along which action potential is propagated
the neuromuscular junction (motor end plate or myoneural junction)
The traveling stimulus that causes the increased calcium ion permeability of the presynaptic terminal cell membrane
The structure to which calcium ions bind during muscle contraction
The troponin molecule
The terms that describes the minimum stimulus needed to cause muscle contraction
The threshold
Whether isometric contraction change/does not muscle length
No change in muscle length
Definition of isotonic contraction
Change in muscle length
The number of ATP molecules produced by aerobic respiration
38 molecules
Definition of motor unit
Combination of individual motor neuron and all the muscle fibers that it innervates
Definition of acetylcholine
A type of neurotransmitter – important in the central and peripheral nervous system
The descriptive term for the difference in electrical charge from one point to another
The potential difference (btwn those points)
The descriptive term for excitation-contraction coupling
Referring to series of events that link the action potential (excitation) of the muscle cell membrane (the sarcolemma) to muscular contraction
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The descriptive term for the ability of muscle cells to shorten
The connective tissue layer bundles muscle fibers together into fascicles
Perimysium and/or endomysium tissue
The cellular source for calcium needed for contraction in skeletal muscles
The sarcoplasmic reticulum
The role of acetylcholinesterase
An enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and some of other choline esters that work as neurotransmitters To terminate neuronal transmission and signaling btwn synapses to prevent Ach dispersal and activation of nearby receptors
The characteristics/features of the cardiac muscle tissue
- Striated - Branched - Have mitochondria - Under involuntary control - Single nucleus an centrally located
The characteristics/features of the smooth muscle tissue?
- Non striated o Thick and thin filaments that aren’t arranged into sarcomeres - Spindle -shaped - Have a single central nucleus
The way by which action potential enters the depth of the muscle fiber
Through the t-tubules system (t=transvers) Starts in the sarcolemma and penetrates the heart of the fibre
The ion that the sarcolemma of a resting muscle fiber is most permeable to
Potassium – K+